Abstract: An effective strategy is critical for the successful development of e‑Government. The leading nations in the e‑Government rankings include Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Finland. Their leading role makes them interesting to study when looking for r easons to successful e‑Government. The purpose of this research paper is to describe the e‑Government development strategies of Nordic countries, which rank highly on the international stage. In particular it aims to study the foci of these strategies. Th e approach is a document study of the e‑Government development strategies of Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland was carried out using a qualitative content analysis inductive method. The results show that the major focus of Nordic e‑Government strategies is on public sector reforms. Other focus areas include economic reforms and, to a lesser extent, e‑Democracy efforts. Sweden, Finland and Norway have set ambitious policy goals in order to achieve global leadership in e‑Government development. In respons e to the question posed by this papers title, we can say that Nordic e‑Government strategies, except for Norway, focus more on reforming public sector services than on economic reforms. E‑Democracy reforms are hardly focused on at all. Practical implica tions: Public sector policy makers can relate their policy foci to some of the more successful e‑Government countries in the world. Research implications/originality is that this paper can apart from the findings also provide a means on how to identify th e actual foci of a countrys e‑Government policy.
Keywords: Keywords: e-Government policies document study, e-Government strategy document study, Nordic e-Government policy analysis, e-government strategy analysis, Nordic e-Government policy study, Scandinavian e-Government strategies, Nordic e-Government strategi es, Nordic e-Government policies
A Review of e‑Government Research as a Mature Discipline: Trends, Themes, Philosophies, Methodologies, and Methods pp18‑35
Abstract: This paper aims to identify themes, trends, research philosophies, methodologies and methods used in E‑Government studies. This research uses a novel structure literature review method to capture the evolving research focus in the E‑Government l iterature. It examines all abstracts from the European Conference on E‑Government (ECEG) papers from 2007 to 2012 and International Conference on E‑Government (ICEG) papers from 2007 to 2010. This paper also compares previous research covering themes and models of E‑Government research. The research findings are: 1) case study and potential case study is dominant methods, 2) there are various research philosophy, methodology and methods on e‑government field, and 3) e‑government is evolving over ti me and is maturing as a discipline. An analysis also shows lack of works covering development of theory in e‑government domain. This paper provides further contribution by using a novel approach for conducting a structured literature review, based on eval uating abstracts and key words, and in a corresponding method to method to validate classification of themes that emerge using focus group discussion sessions.
Keywords: Keywords: e-government, themes, trends, philosophy, methodology, method, literature review, ICEG, ECEG
Abstract. Developing e‑services in the public sector is a demanding task that involves a variety of stakeholders and values. Further complexity is added by organizational and institutional challenges, especially when specialized government agencies are ex pected to collaborate to create seamless, integrated services. This paper focuses on decision making and risk analysis in two Swedish collaborative e‑Government cases. Empirical material consists of semi‑structured interviews and project documentation, wh ich are analyzed using an objectives‑oriented Logical Framework Approach (LFA). The results highlight two factors that influence the outcomes of the projects; governance for collaboration and financial models for distributing resources between governmen t agencies. When these formal support mechanisms are not provided, they become risks for the projects and create uncertainties in decision processes. While the studied government context has matured enough to develop fully functional platforms for e‑servi ces, these uncertainties become issues when public values are to be measured and evaluated. The paper concludes by suggesting the use of public values as objectives together with measurable indicators in order to create a common language for decision maki ng and risk management across government agencies.
Keywords: Keywords: Risk, decision making, e-Government, objectives-oriented, logical framework approach, public values
Abstract: This study evaluated the extent to which current status of e‑government implementation in Nigeria conforms to the national IT policy strategy. The study is based on content analysis of the official websites of the thirty six states and the feder al capital territory of the country. It focuses on the content, functional and construction features of the websites. It was found that, out of the thirty six states, only twenty‑three (64 percent) had websites and mostly provide textual information; fe w provide downloadable digital documents and functional online interactions. We recommend that, in addition to the National IT policy, Nigerian government needs to have an established guideline for its e‑government implementation and NITDA needs to be mor e proactive in its duty of monitoring IT policy implementation. The site designers should acknowledge the importance of government websites as the main channels for information dissemination, for facilitating citizens interaction with government and for transforming government operations. Thus, the websites must be more than static notice boards but be function‑oriented, dynamic and interactive.
Factors Affecting Citizens use of Social Media to Communicate With the Government: A Proposed Model pp60‑72
Abstract: With the emergence of Web 2.0 technology, governments are able to deliver quality services and fully satisfy the needs of their citizens. Despite the importance of this emerging trend, identifying and attracting an audience for government‑affili ated social media (SM) services has proved to be a significant challenge. The figures for public participation in government2.0 remain below expectations. This paper is one of the few attempts to identify those factors affecting citizens decisions to u se SM platforms as a means for communication with their government. To develop a new model of SM adoption, this research study is based on a literature review, and will extend the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model by integ rating cultural factors identified by the Hofstede model (masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and collectivism) and factors related to the trust and motivational model. This paper has created a comprehensive taxonomy of those factors that influence the adoption of SM among citizens, while providing a list of hypotheses for evaluating the significance of these factors.
E‑Availability and E‑Accessibility of Financial Documents: A Cross‑State Examination of U.S. County Websites pp73‑86
Abstract: This article examines the e‑availability and e‑accessibility of financial documents through county websites in the United States (U.S.). E‑availability and e‑accessibility of financial documents supports a stakeholder‑centric approach for eval uating performance and fiscal conditions of county governments, while also promoting democratic values of transparency and accountability. Previous research addresses e‑availability and e‑accessibility for cities, only one analysis reviews popular reports in both cities and counties, and only one study exists that exclusively focuses on the 100 most populous U.S. counties. Our review extends earlier research by examining 237 U.S. counties, up to five in each of the 48 states with county governments. Addit ionally, this research makes a limited comparison with an earlier study to indicate changes in the e‑availability and e‑accessibility of financial documents over a four‑year period. Using systematic sampling and content analysis, this study contributes t o fuller understanding of the significance of financial documents as a feature of e‑government, while reviewing more counties and highlighting variations among counties of differing population sizes. This research also conducted Chi‑square tests to examin e the relationship of the variables, and the value of Cramér's V was calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between the variables. In addition to finding variations in the e‑availability and e‑accessibility of financial documents among cou nties of different population sizes, this analysis also demonstrates dramatic e‑availability improvements for two of the three selected financial documents while noting a modest decrease in the overall e‑accessibility of financial documents on county webs ites. After reporting and analyzing the findings, research limitations are disclosed, and recommendations are offered to advance the state‑of‑practice and for further studies. This form of benchmarking may assist other local governments in the U.S. with i mproving their websites, while internationally this analysis supports developing countries with refining their e‑government strategies by improving online information disclosure.
Keywords: Keywords: E-government, e-availability, e-accessibility, financial documents, state-of-practice, transparency, accountability
Warm Experts in the age of Mandatory e‑Government: Interaction Among Danish Single Parents Regarding Online Application for Public Benefits pp87‑98
Abstract: Citizens adoption of e‑government channels has been the focus of both academic studies and public policy for over a decade. Current efforts seek to reduce citizens interaction with caseworkers through traditional channels in favor of increased use of e‑government self‑service channels. To increase adoption rates and reduce the costs of public administration, the Danish e‑government strategy has made e‑government self‑service channels mandatory thereby attempting to turn citizens into their own caseworkers. The channel choice branch of e‑government studies how citizens and businesses choose interaction channels in a public service encounter. Until now, studies of citizens channel choice have taken place at the level of the individual and ignor ed the influence of group processes. Moreover, although the importance of digital literacy has been widely recognized in relation to citizen channel choice and e‑government adoption, citizens knowledge of public administration and administrative processe s has received less attention. To cover this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of how citizen‑to‑citizen interaction influences channel choice in public service encounters, and how citizens share advice for seeking public benefits. The study entailed five focus group discussions and nine follow‑up individual semi‑structured interviews with Danish single parents who receive public benefits. We employ domestication theory and the concept of the warm expert to inform our analysis. Our findings show tha t the interaction and advice sharing among citizens extends beyond the choice of channels and also covers how the selected channels are used and evaluated. In addition to helping each other with how to use e‑government self‑service channels, citizens also share practices for negotiating with public authorities. This negotiation requires the use of traditional channels and concerns areas such as increasing the likelihood of being granted benefits and ways of getting around the mandatory requirement for e‑g overnment self‑service channels. Based on our findings we present contributions to the channel choice field and offer suggestions for how to expand and update a previous channel choice process model.
Keywords: Keywords: channel choice, citizen-to-citizen interaction, domestication theory, e-government, multichannel, public benefits, single parents, warm experts
Abstract: Public sector organizations are supposed to increase productivity by large‑scale investments in IT. This research investigates the municipalities capabilities to increase productivity through IT investments, and what major challenges must be ov ercome to do so. The research identifies several problems that reduce productivity gains. These problems persist even though they might seem trivial and easily remedied. They are however symptoms of a more general challenge: Difficulties achieving a prope r alignment between IT and organizational processes. This alignment gap is related to the way service production is regulated and organized and the way IT is developed and acquired, the lack of local technology and task control that emerges and the result ing lack of managed coordination between task and technology design.
Perceptions of the Australian public towards mobile internet e‑voting: risks, choice and trust pp117‑134
This paper reports on data collected from an anonymous survey on perceptions of the Australian public towards using a mobile internet e‑voting platform (N = 295). It is the first such study conducted in an Australian context by an academic institution, which allows this research to be approached with a sense of impartiality. Our society has become rapidly fuelled by the mobilization of interactions and services. As the society becomes increasingly wirelessly connected, these mobile platforms are expecte d to provide an untapped universal medium by which paper based elections can be complemented or even "upgraded" to digital elections. This research is the first paper in a study which will be focusing on internet e‑voting, specifically the utilisation of mobility devices within Australia. As with any research, context shapes the direction and outcome goals. Internet e‑Voting (and research pertaining to) has gained momentum over recent years. Though there has been much research done in this field, there was been a gap in findings when dealing with Australian and mobility context, however similarities can be drawn from these related studies. The way the Australian context differentiates itself in one instance is Compulsory Voting. Utilising the findings f rom this initial study, we intend to provide a baseline from which our research can be further analysed and in turn will allow the derivation of hypotheses leading to creation of a user acceptance model towards utilisation of a mobile internet e‑voting pl atform during an Australian election. Survey respondents were overall more in favour of using mobile internet e‑voting (75.25%), with more respondents requiring greater information about the technology (15.93%) rather than being against its use (8.82 %). The top appeals of the platform were towards mobility (91.40%), verifiability (72.90%) and speed (72.50%), with the top concerns towards manipulation (75.10%), retrieval (65.30%) and monitoring (63.20%) of casted votes by malicious partie s or software. The initial hypothesis that were derived from the c
Keywords: Mobile Voting, Remote internet e-voting, Voting/election technologies, E-government, Online Voting, Electronic Voting Survey