Open data in Service design pp97‑105
Abstract: This paper proposes a review of the current approaches to encouraging the creation of services based on data, and an analysis of the creation of services from two open data platforms, in the UK and in Singapore. It also explores the roles that t he (open) data can have in the design of services based on a theoretical framework of service innovation. Data can play different roles: (i) the service is based on data, (2) the service uses data as a resource, and (3) the service is validated or enriched with data but the data is not directly used or is not directly visible in the service. This offers new opportunities for the reuse of data and suggests a different approach to measuring the impact of opening datasets beyond the mere number of se rvices created.
Citizen Involvement in Local Environmental Governance: A Methodology Combining Human‑Centred Design and Living lab Approaches pp106‑114
Abstract: Nowadays, involving citizens in Local Environmental Governance (LEG) is becoming increasingly important. In order to empower the role of citizen in this context, we propose an approach that relies on the establishment of a physical and intelle ctual space for shared understanding and collaboration between all stakeholders impacted by an environmental problem (in our case odour emission). Based on the development of an Information Technology (IT) system allowing odour emission measurement as well as the collection of citizen feedback, a Living Lab (LL) approach is being implemented that involves citizens, public authorities, industry and environmental non‑governmental organisations (NGOs). According to the definition of the European com mission, Living Labs are open innovation environments in real‑life settings, in which user‑driven innovation is fully integrated within the co‑creation process of new services, products and societal infrastructures. Based on this definition and consider ing, in our case, citizens as one of the end‑users of the IT system, we argue that such an approach will empower their role in local environmental governance. This article presents the method and techniques that will be used in order to set up such a Livi ng Lab. More precisely, we focus here on the first step of this method: defining the components that will support the management of a Living Lab relying on an IT system. This step consists in the identification of the Living Lab stakeholders (citizen, in dustry, public authorities, NGOs, etc.), including their characteristics, fears, expectations, involvement and engagement regarding the Living Lab. To do this, 2 main approaches are being combined: A Living Lab approach that aims to involve citizens in l ocal Environmental Governance (LEG) design. Use of Human‑Centred Design (HCD), to combine IT developments and LL needs, for example Personas methodology and usability test. A Living Lab relies mainly on stakeholders involvement in order to build trus t and establish a common goal. In this sense, sociologists approaches ((Akrich et al. 2006);) bring valuable information on how to mobilise different actors in order to innovate (Actor Network Theory). However, in the innovation process, these app roaches are only considering human actors and do not take into account any technological aspects. However, if Living Labs are relying on human actors interactions it should also take into account their interactions with the IT system it is based on. In t his case, Human‑Centred Design (HCD) being an approach that aims to make IT systems usable and useful by focusing on the users, their needs and requirements, is to be considered as complementary to the sociologists approaches. This article, based on the work performed in the FP7 European project OMNISCIENTIS, presents the theoretical context in which this study takes place as well as the overall methodology.
Keywords: Keywords: citizens involvement, living lab, environmental governance, human-centred design
Abstract: Over the past decade the World Wide Web has become a core platform for the electronic operation of government. Yet the shape and nature of government presence on the Web and the online community in which it resides remains poorly understood and relatively under‑theorised. This paper analyses large‑scale web crawling data that map the hyperlink network structure between government websites and the broader Web ecology in the UK. In particular, it reports the communities of websites within a hype rlink network of over 19,000 websites and over 135,000 hyperlinks derived from 75 key UK government seed sites at national, regional (i.e. Scotland and Wales) and local government levels. These website communities were derived by utilising Infomap, a st ate‑of‑the‑art community detection algorithm that operate on the principle that flows of information in complex networks reveals community structure. Identifying and analysing online communities in which government websites reside provides insights in how hyperlink communities are arranged, that is, their emergent organizing principal and the importance of government in these online communities. It is hypothesized that online communities can occur around different policy topics (such as health, educati on or policing), or along institutional or jurisdictional boundaries (such as England, Scotland and Wales). Using this novel approach this paper demonstrates that communities emerge on both axes, and that social media and government portals are some of the most significant communities based on information flows. This research provides foundational knowledge about the role of government websites in the World Wide Web, the emergent online associations, and the changing dynamic of state information in the twenty‑first century. It points to strategies for developing government Web presence in networks that matter.
Keywords: Keywords: social network analysis, community detection, hyperlink networks, Infomap, web social science, UK
E‑government Policy Formation Understanding the roles of change drivers, veto players and advocacy coalitions pp130‑140
Abstract: Despite its promise of increasing public authorities effectiveness, improving decision making and service delivery, e‑government initiatives too often fail. So far, reasons for this have largely been sought in technological aspects of e‑governm ent. However, e‑government is much more complex than that; e‑government also encompasses aspects related to the inner workings of organizations, policy formation processes and change management. Based on an in‑depth case study of an e‑government policy formation process in the municipality of Vasteras, Sweden, this paper sets out to develop the understanding of e‑government policy failure by elucidating how individuals actions, behaviors and decision affect endeavors to improve e‑government policy agen das. Applying theoretical concepts from political science and the change management literature, this paper describes how a change driver attempted to accomplish fundamental changes in the policy area of e‑government, through involving as many stakeholder s as possible in the policy formation process, and how this enabled for the emergence of a new advocacy coalition. This advocacy coalition consisted of the actors involved in the policy formation process, and these actors espoused the policy belief advoca ted by the change driver. However, as time went by, it became apparent that there also existed several veto players, which the change driver failed to engage, and who actively blocked the attempt to get the new policy documents on e‑government adopted. A s a consequence, the policy formation process failed, despite that the municipality of Vasteras had exceptionally good conditions for improving the e‑government policy agenda. This case study highlights the need for e‑government‑research to look beyond th eoretical areas of technological science, and it illustrates the usefulness of theories from political science and change management when furthering the knowledge of e‑government. It also points to the need for more processual studies on policy formation processes.
Keywords: Keywords: e-government, policy formation process, the municipality of Vasteras, veto players, advocacy coalitions, change processes, change drivers
Abstract: Most e‑Government implementations have resulted in failures with many implementations being one‑way (government‑to‑citizen) and mainly informational (Dada, 2006; Cloete, 2012). However, advances in technology provide governments with the opp ortunity to engage with citizens using new methods, such as crowdsourcing. Successful commercial and open source software implementations of crowdsourcing have sparked interest in its potential use in the public sector. Brabham (2009) advocated for the use of crowdsourcing in the public sector to increase public participation and for governments to access citizens as a source of ideas and solutions. However, crowdsourcing lacks a theoretical and conceptual foundation (Geiger, et al., 2011; Pedersen, et al., 2013). Within e‑Government there is also a lack of knowledge regarding the implementation of crowdsourcing platforms (Koch & Brunswicker, 2011). The main research questions is: How are crowdsourcing initiatives able to motivate citizen participat ion in e‑Government? A conceptual model of critical success factors for an e‑Government crowdsourcing solution is presented, based on a comprehensive review of relevant literature. The model uses Self‑Determination Theory as a basis to examine citizen mo tivation and the influence of incentives or rewards. The model also addresses system factors such as task clarity and types, management, and feedback. In addition it also examines effort and performance expectancy, and behavioural intention to use crowdso urcing through the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. The results of a questionnaire‑based survey (n=295) testing the model indicated that some crowdsourcing concepts may not necessarily translate well when applied in public sector init iatives. System management and support, rules and feedback as well as the UTUAT constructs were identified as important factors. This research benefits future work by building a conceptual foundation for a potential e‑Government crowdsourcing solution.
Keywords: Keywords: e-Government, Crowdsourcing, Critical Success Factors, Self-Determination Theory
Analysis of Different Organizational Forms: Towards a Framework of Influencing Factors Regarding Performance Management of IT in Public Organizations pp157‑168
Abstract: Many public organizations still face big challenges regarding the use of performance management of information technology (IT‑PM). We assume that one reason for this is the fact that they have characteristics of both the private and the public sector. So far, the literature differentiates only between private organizations and public administrations when taking into account the organizational effects on IT‑PM. Public organizations are not taken into consideration. Besides, almost no research i s done on how the characteristics of the three organizational forms affect the way IT‑PM is implemented and used. We aim at designing a framework containing the influencing factors regarding IT‑PM especially for public organizations. We base this framewor k on four major organizational attributes (objectives, stability and time horizon, complexity and managerial values) derived from the characteristics of IT‑PM. In order to identify further influencing factors aligned with the organizational attributes, we enlarge the framework by findings of an additional literature review with a focus on the public sector. The assumption that public organizations have characteristics of both private organizations and public administrations was affirmed by the findings. We identified bureaucracy as an additional relevant organizational attribute. The other influencing factors were affirmed by the literature review. Our analysis presents a revised framework of organizational attributes and influencing factors regarding I T‑PM in the public sector. Thus, it extends its understanding by differentiating its use in a particular organizational form. Public IT managers can use the findings to enhance the benefits of IT‑PM and focus on relevant factors for its implementation, us e and adaptation.
Keywords: Keywords: performance management of IT, public administration, public organization, private sector, hybrid organizational forms
Conundrums in Benchmarking eGovernment Capabilities? Perspectives on Evaluating European Usage and Transparency pp169‑177
Abstract: This study examines three popular instruments used to assess good governance in response to initiatives promoting digitally‑provided public services. It provides a comparative analysis of e‑capabilities and trustworthiness in EU member states fr om benchmarks established by the European Commission, Transparency International and the United Nations in order to answer three questions: How do EU members stand when eGovernment capabilities are measured by multiple instruments? Does citizen online use and government website usability reflect user perceptions about transparency? And finally, is an overall ranking of eGovernment development associated with different measures of usage, transparency and public corruption? Comparing average scores between East and West EU member states, and conducting bivariate correlations of these various features, demonstrate that the demands placed upon member states to meet goals of the EU 2020 Digital Initiative are met to varying degree. This paper thus offers a uni que perspective of eGovernment trends in Europe by integrating public and expert opinions on citizen interaction with government officials and completion of forms online, user centricity of national government websites, perceived levels of transparency in eGovernment and political corruption, and overall status of eGovernment development.
Keywords: Keywords: benchmarking, user-citizen perceptions, transparency, corruption, eGovernment capabilities
Abstract: A common identification and authentication space is one of the goals set in Europe⠒s Digital Agenda. Interoperability of electronic identities (eIDs) across Europe will facilitate mobility and cross‑border e‑business and therefore contribute to growth. Large Scale Pilots STORK and STORK 2.0 have designed a technical solution and are developing a model for offering cross‑border eID use as service. A major challenge remains in growing acceptance for such a system by end users, service provider s and national governments alike. This paper examines the different aspects influencing the long‑term success of European identity federation, which enables cross‑border eID use for accessing e‑government and private services. A special emphasis is put on the value perspectives of the individual stakeholders and the public value assessment of the solution. Based on a literature review, it offers a framework for analysing acceptance criteria according to different stakeholder groups (governments, service providers, end users). It takes into account the trust component, the mutual influence of acceptance decisions and the importance of contextual factors influencing the actors⠒ choices. The discussion is based on a reflection of existing conceptual appr oaches in the field of technology acceptance in general and eID development in particular and draws on preliminary empirical data from the STORK 2.0 project. The paper outlines the challenges of creating a European interoperability solution, which allows a convergence with the development of national eID strategies and fits the value expectations of all stakeholders. In an organizational perspective, it touches upon requirements for creating an identity ecosystem with a network character but centralized s ervices and decisions. In conclusion, the paper presents critical success factors for advanced collaboration between private service providers and government agencies across Europe on the subject of eID development. Thereby it assesses the current status of realization and outlines the challenges and o
Keywords: Keywords: electronic identification, federated identity, technology acceptance, large scale project, multi-stakeholder coordination, public value
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify research philosophy, methodologies and methods used in E‑Government studies. The E‑Government domain is interdisciplinary and consequently is likely to draw upon various research methodologies. It is importan t to identify methodologies used by researchers and practitioners from around the world because of the many lessons can be learnt from other researchers and practitioners and their methodologies.This paper attempts to examine all of research paper abstrac ts from the European Conference on E‑Government (ECEG) Proceedings from 2007 to 2012 and International Conference on E‑Government (ICEG) Proceedings from 2007 to 2010. This enables us to identify and classify a range of research methods and approaches used within the E‑Government domain. Furthermore, the results can be categorised into research paradigm, research approach, research methodologies, research methods and way to conclusion. This paper uses graphics to represent the different methodologies and methods used as well as graphics of the top ten methodologies and methods. Comparison and evaluation of the results are made with previous works such as Heeks and Bailure (2007), Pedro and Bolivar (2010), also Bannister and Connoly (2010) and ot hers. The results show the top ten methodologies in ECEG from 2007 to 2012 are (1) Case Study, (2) Not Clear Stated, (3) Survey, (4) Literature Review, (5) Questionnaire, (6) Empirical Approach, (7) Interview, (8) Quantitative and Qualitat ive, (9) Qualitative, (10) Statistical. Moreover, Top ten methodologies on ICEG from 2007 to 2010 are (1) Case Study, (2) Not Clear Stated, (3) Survey, (4) Questionnaire, (5) Interview, (6) Empirical Approach, (7) Quantitative Empirical, (8) Qualitative, (9) Extensive Review of Literature Review, (10) Qualitative and Quantitative. This examination of results shows that E‑Government has a large variety of research philosophies, research methodologies and research methods from the ex treme continuum positivist and social constructivist, pure qualitative, pure quantitative to m
Keywords: Keywords: e-Government, ICEG, ECEG, research philosophy, research paradigm, research approach, research methodologies, research methods, way to conclusion
E‑SmartBox: A Decent Software and Hardware Tool to Enhance Public Service Efficiency and Sustainability pp199‑207
Abstract: The Ministry of Labour (MOL) is responsible for labour‑related public services. The services include employment promotion, skill development, social security, the worker compensation fund, labour protection and welfare. These various services have been mandated to several departments and divisions under the MOL. Service receivers must know where to access a specific service since each service is provided in a different location. Especially in the countryside this becomes a significant difficul ty since people do not know where to access a specific labour service. To enhance labour service accessibility MOL service counters had been established. The counters perform as a single window to access all kinds of labour‑related public services. The se rvice procedure starts from the service request, filling out a request form, providing required documents, finishing the service, and a satisfaction survey. This procedure takes averagely 20 ‑ 30 minutes for each service access. Additionally, since more t han 130 types of labour‑related services have to be delivered, working staff have to be intensively trained to be able to deliver these services. Unfortunately, some working staff do not stay in their jobs long. They tend to quit their jobs for better one s. Training new staff to provide such a wide variety of services becomes an obstacle to delivering continual good services. E‑SmartBox is a new concept designed by the MOL to solve the problems. It consists of two parts: a hardware part and a software par t. The hardware part is a plastic box with a smartcard reader, a web camera and a key pad inside, and can be procured anywhere at low cost. All Thai people aged from 7 to 70 have citizen ID cards which are electronic smartcards. The software has been desi gned to retrieve personal data from the ID card, to fill and print request forms automatically and to provide a rapid satisfaction survey via the key pad. This greatly reduces the service procedure to less than five minutes. Additionally the software has been designed to assist the staff by providing
Keywords: Keywords: labour-related public service, smart card, web cam, efficiency, sustainability, service counter, one stop service