Volume 11 Issue 2, ECEG 2013 / Dec 2013 pp324‑388
Special Issue Editorial pp324‑325
Abstract: Smart cities suggest a domain that attracts an increasing scientific, political and economic attention. However, this domain is still confusing, since various parties define or apply alternative perspectives. Scientists document a technological smart city evolution from a website form to modern ubiquitous and eco‑friendly ones; city networks describe this phenomenon more likely as a measurement system for intelligence in urban areas; business sector recognizes smart cities as ⠜application boxe s⠀ for information technologies etc. This paper focuses on the abovementioned technological approaches to smart city and realizes that each approach attracted various cases, which later evolved to other forms or declined. To this end, it seeks to answer the following questions: what different technological approaches to smart city exist or have existed and how can they ⠜fit⠀ to market‑driven defined approaches? How have the smart cities evolved? Do particular technology evolution roadmaps exist for smart cities? In order to answer these questions, this paper performs smart city classification, according to the alternative technological approaches that appear in literature and determines representative city cases together with similarities and differ ences among these approaches. Literature review is combined with data from the official websites of the representative cases, which returns groups of e‑services that are being offered by different smart city approaches. These e‑service groups are used to identify evolution roadmaps for smart city that can show how smart cities have emerged and to which particular directions are being evolved. The evolution roadmaps are depicted via the technology roadmapping tool. These roadmaps can become a useful tool f or decision makers, who have to choose between alternative evolution forms and projects that secure smart city⠒s viability. Viability is a crucial parameter for every project, especially due to recent financial recession, since smart cities demand exten sive funding, which significantly affects la
Keywords: Keywords: smart cities, technology roadmapping, e-Government, digital cities, e-services, informational cities, viability
Abstract: This article examines the way stakeholders in parts of the UK local government community have developed a set of tools and frameworks for supporting e‑Government‑related change. In particular, it looks at how ideas from Activity‑Based Costing ha ve been drawn upon to support business process improvements and decisions about delivery channels. The article follows the evolution of an approach known as the Cost Architecture Framework and how this is being used by public bodies to support more effi cient and effective service designs. The implications of the approach including its links to ideas on lean management are then discussed. The article provides an insight into how communities of actors can come together to develop common approaches a nd solutions in addressing their e‑Government needs. It also discusses the limits to such collaborations in the face of resource constraints, and the need for end‑user customisation in supporting local applications.
Keywords: Keywords: e-Government, lean, process redesign, channel migration, cost architecture, Activity-Based Costing
Abstract: Despite the development of Open Data platforms, the wider deployment of Open Data still faces significant barriers. It requires identifying the obstacles that have prevented e‑government bodies either from implementing an Open Data strategy or f rom ensuring its sustainability.This paper presents the results of a study carried out between June and November 2012, in which we analyzed three cases of Open Data development through their platforms, in a medium size city (Rennes, France), a large cit y (Berlin, Germany), and at national level (UK). It aims to draw a clear typology of challenges, risks, limitations, barriers, all terms used by the different stakeholders with diverse meanings and based on different motivations. Indeed the issues and constraints faced by re‑users of public data differ from the ones encountered by the public data providers. Through the analysis of the experiences in opening data, we attempt to identify how barriers were overcome and how risks were managed. Beyond pass ionate debates in favor or against Open Data, we propose to consider the development of an Open Data initiative in terms of risks, contingency actions, and expected opportunities. We therefore present in the next sections the risks to Open Data organized in 7 categories: (1) governance, (2) economic issues, (3) licenses and legal frameworks, (4) data characteristics, (5) metadata, (6) access, and (7) skills.
Evaluation and Assessment of Editable Signatures for Trusted and Reliable Public Sector Data pp360‑372
Abstract: Due to the increased application of information and communication technologies in the public sector, the amount of data being produced and processed by the public sector has been constantly growing during the past years. As these data can also b e useful for the general public and the corporate sector, current initiatives attempt to make these data publicly available. Recent work on this topic has shown that publishing of public sector data potentially raises several issues regarding data integri ty and authenticity. These issues render the implementation of solutions based on trusted and reliable public sector data difficult. However, recent work has proposed electronic signatures in general and editable electronic signatures in particular as ade quate means to address these issues. While a variety of editable signature schemes has been introduced in literature, their capabilities to assure the integrity and authenticity of published public sector data has not been assessed so far. This renders a concrete implementation of solutions based on editable signatures impossible. To overcome this problem, this paper identifies and discusses legal, organisational, and technical requirements that need to be met by editable signature schemes when applied to public sector data to be published. Afterwards, different existing editable signature schemes are examined and discussed in more detail. Based on the previously identified requirements, the different editable signature schemes are then assessed in detail . The conducted assessment reveals that blank digital signatures, which are a novel approach representing a subset of editable signature schemes, are especially suited to meet the predefined requirements. The results obtained from the conducted survey ser ved as input and basis for the implementation of solutions based on trusted and reliable public sector data.
Keywords: Keywords: e-government, redactable signatures, editable signatures, blank digital signatures, public sector data
Abstract: After having briefly introduced the issue of measuring e‑Government vis‑à‑vis its impact evaluation, the paper provides an overview of the state of the art with regard to measurement of e‑Government, addressing the debate on the relationship bet ween 'public value' creation and e‑Government, outlining some of the approaches advanced to measure the public value of ICT interventions in the public sector. In light of this discussion, the paper then proposes the eGEP‑2.0 model which, building on its predecessor eGEP, overcome many of the limitations of existing frameworks, and more importantly pave the way for an effective impact assessment of e‑Government initiatives, in relation to the policy‑making process and related governance needed for their d esign and implementation. The results of the application of the eGEP‑2.0 model on the Telematics and Informatics Plan (PiTER) of the Emilia Romagna Region in Italy are then presented and discussed. The paper concludes providing some reflections on the e xperience and outlining future research challenges.