The Electronic Journal of e-Government publishes perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government

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Journal Article

Socio‑technical Impediments of Open Data  pp156-172

Anneke Zuiderwijk, Marijn Janssen, Sunil Choenni, Ronald Meijer, Roexsana Sheikh Alibaks

© Dec 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, ECEG, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp95 - 181

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Abstract

There is an increasing demand for opening data provided by public and private organisations. Various organisations have already started to publish their data and potentially there are many benefits to gain. However, realising the intended positive effects and creating value from using open data on a large scale is easier said than done. Opening and using data encounters numerous impediments which can have both a socio and a technical nature. Yet, no overview of impediments is available from the perspective of the open data user. Socio‑technical impediments for the use of open data were identified based on a literature overview, four workshops and six interviews. An analysis of these 118 impediments shows that open data policies provide scant attention to the user perspective, whereas users are the ones generating value from open data. The impediments that the open data process currently encounters were analysed and categorized in ten categories: 1) availability and access, 2) find ability, 3) usability, 4) understand ability, 5) quality, 6) linking and combining data, 7) comparability and compatibility, 8) metadata, 9) interaction with the data provider, and 10) opening and uploading. The impediments found in literature differ from impediments that were found in empirical research. Our overview of impediments derived from both literature and empirical research is therefore more comprehensive than what was already available. The comprehensive overview of impediments can be used as a basis for improving the open data process, and can be extended in further research. This will result in the solving of some impediments and new impediments might rise over time.

 

Keywords: open data, open government data, impediments, barriers, challenges, problems, user perspective.

 

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Journal Article

Challenges to the Successful Implementation of e‑Government Initiatives in Sub‑Saharan Africa: A Literature Review  pp252-266

Quinta Nven-akeng Nkohkwo, M. Sirajul Islam

© Dec 2013 Volume 11 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp181 - 322

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Abstract

Abstract: With the dawn of the technological age due to the wide spread of information and communication technologies (ICTs), e‑government is fast becoming of prime importance. This has prompted many governments (those of Sub‑Saharan African ‑ SSA incl uded) to start thinking of going digital. This growing importance stems from the fact that e‑government has the capability of promoting better governance, transparency, raising service performance and eliminating bottlenecks in the service delivery proce ss. This paper is based on a literature review of the papers and documents relating to e‑government and investigates the challenges to the successful implementation of e‑government initiatives in all the 49 African countries in SSA for the period 2001 to 2012. In order to conduct a systematic review the guidelines suggested by Webster and Watson (2002) and Okoli and Schabram (2010) have been followed. In total 75 relevant articles and documents have been examined all of which have been published in le ading journals, conferences proceedings, reports from governmental and non‑governmental organizations. The results show that ICT infrastructure, human resources, legal framework, Internet access, the digital divide, and connectivity are among the most com mon themes on the challenges to the successful implementation of e‑government initiatives in Sub‑Saharan African countries. These themes are further grouped into six different aspects abbreviated as IF‑POSH (Infrastructural, financial, political, organis ational, socio‑economic and human). Among these six aspects, infrastructural and human aspects are the most important challenges that the respective governments in SSA need to address prior to adopting implementation strategies. The study suggests that g overnments of the Sub‑Saharan African countries can benefit from the advantages of e‑government if they address these challenges collectively allowing for the sensitivity of certain socio‑economic realities.

 

Keywords: Keywords: ICTs, e-government, Sub-Saharan Africa, e-government Challenges, e-government implementation

 

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Journal Article

Challenges In Information Systems Procurement in the Public Sector  pp307-322

Carl Erik Moe, Tero Päivärinta

© Dec 2013 Volume 11 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp181 - 322

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Abstract

Abstract. Public procurement constitutes a large part of the market in many countries, and it has the potential of playing an important role in stimulating communities and serving policy goals. With this in mind the governments have set regulations for pu blic procurement. Procurement of Information Systems is especially challenging due to the complexity of procuring unknown technology and the importance an information system has for different stakeholders in an organization. Public procurement of informat ion systems (IS) and services provides several challenges to the stakeholders involved in the procurement processes. However, these are not well established or understood, and there is a knowledge gap that needs to be covered. This paper presents result s from a Delphi study, which involved 46 experienced procurement managers, chief information officers, and vendor representatives in the Norwegian public sector. The participants identified 98 challenges related to IS procurement, and subsequently ranked the relative importance of the top issues. The study supports findings from previous research related to diverging stakeholder goals; challenges in balancing between objectives; in requirement specifications; and in too narrow cost focus. In addition to p roviding empirical confirmation of these previous propositions the study revealed new findings, such as benefits realization in IS procurement; coordinating and standardizing public procurement processes; complex and constraining government regulations; i ssues of technological integration and compatibility; and inter‑municipal cooperation. Developing clear requirements specifications stands out as critical for public sector officials. The results provide a rich overview of IS procurement challenges in the public sector in Norway, and may also give a good picture of challenges in other countries with similar procurement regulations.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Public procurement, procurement of information systems, procurement challenges, stakeholder challenges, Delphi study

 

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Journal Article

Exploring the Challenges Of M‑Government Adoption in Saudi Arab ia  pp18-27

Anan Alssbaiheen, Dr. Steve Love

© Nov 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 76

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Abstract

Abstract: This study explores challenges faced by m‑government services provided by the Ministry of Higher Education and Technical and Vocational Training Corporation in Saudi Arabia. By collecting data through surveys from students registered with the Mi nistry of Higher Education and Technical and Vocational Training Corporation and employees of IT and Communication Ministry in Saudi Arabia, this study shows that the high level of mobile penetration in the country offers an opportunity for Saudi Arabian government to offer mobile government services in the country. The results suggest that students find m‑government services ineffective and expensive. However, employees believe that the effective implementation of m‑government services is a feasible opti on and it would enhance the technological development in Saudi Arabia. Certain barriers to m‑government adoption were identified, including the lack of necessary infrastructure and insufficient level of understanding amongst students. There is also a lack of the customization of mobile government services and lack of access to mobile technologies.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Mobile Government, M-government, E-government, Challenges, Customization of Services, Mobile Infrastructure

 

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Journal Article

Reflections on E‑rulemaking: Challenges, Limitations and Unrealistic Expectations  pp43-55

Ann Marie Johnson, Alexandru Roman

© Nov 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 76

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Abstract

Abstract: In 2002 the cross‑agency e‑government initiative was established, quickly followed by the d‑rulemaking program. Excitement over digital opportunities from information communication technology (ITC) for citizens to participate in the agency ru lemaking process has however been met with a mixed response. In this essay we review popular thought surrounding technology and democratic participation, explain e‑rulemaking and explore whether e‑rulemaking has led to greater meaningful participation. Factors such as the timing of the comments, administrative restraints in analyzing the comments and characteristics of the participants themselves are examined. We explain e‑rulemaking and discuss this relatively new area of literature while critically ex amining the premise that e‑rulemaking will lead to meaningful participation and engagement. In particular, we focus on the period of time from 2003 when the eRulemaking Program Management Office Launched the Regulations.gov website. Here we pose the follo wing questions: Will greater access to the comment process in agency rulemaking increase the number of views expressed and improve the quality of the regulatory framework; and what will be the effect on democracy?

 

Keywords: Keywords: E-rulemaking: Challenges, Limitations and Unrealistic Expectations

 

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Journal Article

Beyond Information‑Sharing. A Typology Of Government Challenges And Requirements For Two‑Way Social Media Communication With Citizens  pp32-45

Enzo Falco, Reinout Kleinhans

© May 2018 Volume 16 Issue 1, Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe, pp1 - 86

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Abstract

Despite great advances in ICT, social media, participatory platforms and mobile apps, we seem to still be locked in the one‑way communication “paradigm” where information flows unilaterally from government to citizens and seldom vice‑versa. As a result, citizens are more receivers rather than conscious producers of information, data, ideas, solutions and decisions in the context of public policies. By means of an extensive literature review, this paper aims to explore the challenges on the part of government that prevent the transition to more dialogic governance and identifies the requirements for a meaningful application of social media for this purpose. The paper contributes to the literature in three ways: i) redefining a typology of social media‑based citizens‑government relationship; ii) clarifying the difference between challenges and risks of social media application by governments and identifying a typology of government challenges; and iii) identifying government requirements as a conditio sine‑qua non for overcoming these challenges upfront, enabling more effective two‑way interactions between governments and citizens. The paper concludes with discussion of implications and directions for further research.

 

Keywords: Social media, Social media-based collaboration, Government challenges, Government requirements, Citizen engagement, Two-way communication, Citizens-government relationship

 

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Journal Article

Successful e‑Government Transformation: Pressure, Support, Capabilities and the Freedom to use Them  pp168-184

Keld Pedersen, Gitte Tjørnehøj

© Oct 2018 Volume 16 Issue 2, Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe, pp87 - 186

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Abstract

E‑government initiatives struggle with realizing the transformational objectives defined in the most mature stages in the various e‑government maturity models and ambitious e‑government programs. Research indicates that, in general, e‑government initiatives might have improved the efficiency of the public sector incrementally but failed to realize more transformational changes. This research summarizes t‑government challenges and investigates how organizations can successfully overcome them and realize the goals of t‑government in terms of citizen centricity and efficiency. The research is based in dynamic capability theory and on data from a Danish public library that has succeeded in transformational changes in line with the goals of efficiency and citizen centricity described in the t‑government literature. The primary finding is that the success in this particular organization is based on a combination of environmental and organizational factors and on a long history of successful organizational changes. The context provides both pressure (e.g., competition) and support (e.g., funding) for transformation, and the organization has both the autonomy (e.g., to redesign processes) and the capabilities (e.g., regarding organizational change) needed for transformational change.

 

Keywords: T-government, Transformational changes, T-government challenges, Local government, Public library

 

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Journal Article

Organisational Challenges in the Implementation of ‘one‑stop’ e‑Government in Rwanda  pp1-19

Pierre Bakunzibake, Åke Grönlund, Gunnar O. Klein

© Apr 2019 Volume 17 Issue 1, Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe, pp1 - 19

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Abstract

One‑stop e‑government holds potential benefits in all contexts and especially in the context of developing countries and in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Implementation of one‑stop e‑government can be challenging as it normally requires addressing a number of organisational issues including those related to the integration of the individual government information systems of different departments which traditionally function as silos; tackling organisational issues can be difficult due to the nature of the public sector. However, the contemporary literature paints a picture of scarce research on the organisational issues that impede the implementation of one‑stop e‑government initiatives in LDCs. This paper explores the organisational issues underlying the implementation of ‘one‑stop’ e‑government initiatives in Rwanda, an LDC. The study explores the status of these elements as of and up to March 2017. The qualitative case study methodology used for this study involved data collection by means of documents and interviews with key managers from central government organisations, from a private company, and from local government service clerks. Template analysis was used as a method for data analysis. Even though the number of online services for citizens, businesses, and other agencies is growing rapidly and easy payment of service fees is available, a number of organisational issues were identified. These include the lack of a clear plan of ‘to‑be’ service processes and a corresponding change management strategy. Service re‑design was taking place very much ad hoc. There were also unclear systematic organisational learning mechanisms and unclear operational goals in the local government. Addressing these issues would contribute towards improving the implementation of one‑stop e‑government and its corresponding services in such a context. The paper contributes to research by providing insights into organisational issues in a country currently in an early stage of e‑government development. For Rwandan e‑government professionals, the paper suggests a way forward. It also helps decision makers in Rwanda and similar countries undertaking one‑stop initiatives to understand the problem context of actions taken towards IT‑driven institutional reform.

 

Keywords: One-stop e-government, e-government organisational challenges, Rwanda

 

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