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Journal Article

E‑government in Rwanda: Implementation, Challenges and Reflections  pp19-31

Jean Damascene Twizeyimana, Hannu Larsson, Åke Grönlund

© May 2018 Volume 16 Issue 1, Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe, pp1 - 86

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E‑government is currently high on the agenda in many developing countries (DCs). While e‑government is well‑established in many developed countries it is new to least developed countries. Countries that start implementing e‑government today can benefit from easy import of modern technologies, but adaptation to local conditions and the organizational change that is required cannot be imported, but must be developed at home. By using examples of an ongoing initiative by the Government of Rwanda to digitalize all G2C and G2B into a single window platform, the current study investigated the important challenges in the implementation of e‑government in Rwanda. An interpretive case study was followed. Data was collected through interviews and participatory observations during August to December 2015. Data analysis was inductive, the analysis method was content analysis, and the coding followed open‑coding. NVivo software has been used to handle data and facilitate the analysis. The study found six overarching categories of aspects that challenge a successful implementation of e‑government in Rwanda. They include information infrastructure for e‑government, social inclusion, governance, management, trust in the new system, and languages. However, challenges to e‑government implementation should not be taken as of the same extent, neither their degree of mitigation. Rather, they influence and are influenced by various contextual factors which include political support, nature of the e‑government project, implementation strategies, human and socio‑economic development, existing information infrastructure, and operational capabilities. Having said this, we also argue that countries should learn from one another of their experiences, success stories, and mistakes. Despite a number of associated challenges, the adopted public‑private partnership (PPP) approach to e‑Government implementation in Rwanda might indeed seem as a suitable catalyst for e‑government success in the country.


Keywords: information infrastructure, e-government, implementation, public-private partnership (PPP), least developed countries (LDCs), sub-Saharan Africa, Rwanda.


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Journal Issue

Volume 16 Issue 1 / May 2018  pp1‑86

Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe

View Contents Download PDF (free)

Keywords: ICT4D, Capability Approach, Design-reality gap, ICT4D evaluation, ICT4D champion, Jigawa ICT, economic empowerment, information infrastructure, e-government, implementation, public-private partnership (PPP), least developed countries (LDCs), sub-Saharan Africa, Rwanda, Social media, Social media-based collaboration, Government challenges, Government requirements, Citizen engagement, Two-way communication, Citizens-government relationship, enterprise architecture (EA), adoption, organisational change, resistance towards EA, relevant EA goals, EA practices in use, survey research, degree of digitalization, satisfied citizens, local e-government, municipality, Sweden, E-government, User Participation, Public e-service development


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