The Electronic Journal of e-Government publishes perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government
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Journal Article

Evaluating Global e‑Government Sites: A View using Web Diagnostic Tools  pp105-114

Jyoti Choudrie, Gheorgita Ghinea Vishanth Weerakkody

© Oct 2004 Volume 2 Issue 2, ECEG 2004, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp75 - 146

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Abstract

Several governments across the world have embraced the digital revolution and continue to take advantage of the information and communication facilities offered by the Internet to offer public services. Conversely, citizens' awareness and expectations of Internet based online‑public‑services have also increased in recent times. Although the numbers of the different national e‑Government web portals have increased rapidly in the last three years, the success of these portals will largely depend on their accessibility, quality and privacy. This paper reports the results of an evaluative study of a cross‑ section of e‑Government portals from these three perspectives, using a common set of performance metrics and Web diagnostic engines. Results show that not only are there wide variations in the spectrum of information and services provided by these portals, but that significant work still needs to be undertaken in order to make the portals examples of 'best practice' e‑Government services.

 

Keywords: e-Government, accessibility, quality, privacy

 

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Journal Article

e‑Government Website Accessibility: In‑Depth Evaluation of Saudi Arabia and Oman  pp149-156

Abdulmohsen Abanumy, Ali Al-Badi, Pam Mayhew

© Dec 2005 Volume 3 Issue 3, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp99 - 156

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Abstract

This paper explores three main areas, firstly, website accessibility guidelines; secondly, website accessibility tools and finally the implication of human factors in the process of implementing successful e‑Government websites. It investigates the issues that make a website accessible and explores the importance placed on web usability and accessibility with respect to e‑Government websites. It briefly examines accessibility guidelines, evaluation methods and analysis tools. It then evaluates the web accessibility of e‑Government websites of Saudi Arabia and Oman by adapting the 'W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines'. Finally, it presents recommendations for improvement of e‑Government website accessibility.

 

Keywords: Accessibility guidelines, tools, e-Government, web style guide, web testing and evaluation and assistive technology

 

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Journal Article

Bridging the Digital Divide for e‑Government inclusion: A United States Case Study  pp109-118

Janice C. Sipior, Burke T. Ward

© Dec 2005 Volume 3 Issue 3, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp99 - 156

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Abstract

This case study of computer‑illiterate people in a public housing community was undertaken to explore the digital divide and e‑Government inclusion and uses. Overall, the results indicate the importance of a community organizing strategy to secure internet access, coordinate education and training, and sustain internet use to initiate e‑ Government participation among the techno‑disadvantaged. While first‑time government website visitation by community participants was surprisingly high, the intent to continue use was lacking. Sustained use remains challenging due to external threats to the community initiative, including isolation from mainstream society, exploitive dependency by those ostensibly assisting the community, and a culture of failure. Public outreach, on the part of governmental and other organizations, is suggested to encourage e‑Government inclusion among those previously excluded.

 

Keywords: e-Government, digital divide, country case study, internet access

 

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Journal Article

e‑Government and Technology Acceptance: The Case of the Implementation of Section 508 Guidelines for Websites  pp87-98

Paul T. Jaeger, Miriam Matteson

© Jan 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 122

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Abstract

This paper examines the relevance of the Technology Acceptance Model for e‑Government websites at federal government level in the United States through an exploratory research study. Various unfunded government mandates over the past several years have required agencies to create websites, put services on the sites, and make them accessible to citizens, and the federal e‑Government now includes tens of thousands of sites. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, for example, was passed to ensure e‑Government sites would be accessible to persons with disabilities. By studying the implementation of the requirements of Section 508 through a number of data collection techniques and in terms of the Technology Acceptance Model, this paper seeks to use this particular law as an example through which to better understand the processes by which government agencies adopt e‑Government requirements and the actions that government managers can take to improve the implementation of such adoption.

 

Keywords: e-Government, technology acceptance model, accessibility, Section 508, disability, public servants, websites

 

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Journal Article

The use of ICT in Brazilian Courts  pp339-348

Roberto Fragale Filho

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECEG 2009, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp295 - 432

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Abstract

Transparency and effectiveness are emphasized as two positive consequences of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Courts. Indeed, ICT expanded the possibilities of access to information and judicial decisions, as well as its use especially in acts of distrainment, have given greater transparency and effectiveness to the judicial acts. In Brazil, federal, state and labor courts have web sites where judicial information is disclosed and their decisions are published. Moreover, they have agreements with the Federal Revenue Secretariat, the Central Bank and the National Register of Automobiles that allow them to implement all acts of distrainment. However, not all Courts are at the same stage as to the use of ICT because, on one hand, their web pages do not have all the features available and, on the other hand, their users are unable to explore the full potential offered by the new technologies. Delivering a diagnosis of the existing offer in the Courts' web sites and of the use of their agreements with other public services is the first task that is being proposed here. This paper intends to examine how such things are changing the judicial function and, in particular, the figure of the judge, in addition to contributing to a new insertion of the Judiciary in the society.

 

Keywords: e-justice, Brazil, web services, access

 

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Journal Article

The Accessibility of Moroccan Public Websites: Evaluation of Three e‑Government Websites  pp65-79

Ibtissam Bousarhane, Najima Daoudi

© Nov 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 125

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Abstract

Abstract: Enabling people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, contribute, create content and interact with the Web is the purpose of Web accessibility. The present research aims to evaluate the accessibility of three Moroccan e‑government websites to people with disabilities. To achieve the realization of this research, we opted for the method AccessiWeb and we analyzed, following this methodology, four to seven pages in each website. The evaluation results show the presence of several problems of accessibility in each of the three websites. Some accessibility problems, found in the three websites, are relating to level A criteria, other to level AA criteria, while the rest is relating to level AAA criteria. The presence of level A criteria that are not respected, in the three websites, makes us conclude that the three evaluated websites don’t meet the minimum level of accessibility. To reach the minimum level of accessibility, recommended by the W3C, all problems relating to level A and level AA criteria should be corrected. Various measures should be then taken to make the content of these websites perceivable, operable, understandable by users and robust. Thus, to make the content perceivable by users, the necessary measures to be taken can be summarized as follows : provide text equivalents for non‑textual items, increase the contrast ratio, make time‑based media clearly identifiable, provide summaries and titles for tables, make all links explicit, indicate changes of reading direction in the source code, organize the content by the use of titles, use CSS, associate form fields with relevant labels, offer accessible versions to documents for download and make it possible for users to control flashing contents. To make the content presented within the three websites operable, it is necessary to : make the control of time‑based media and no time‑based media possible by the keyboard, give pertinent titles for links and web pages, make explicit links that open in a new window, add links that help to bypass the blocks of content and the groups of links, provide information about the documents for download, ensure that navigation does not contain keyboard traps and that the sitemap page shows the general architecture of the website. Concerning the third principle, which consists on making the content understandable by users, context changes should be initiated by explicit buttons, language changes should be indicated in the source code, the labels associated with form fields should be appended with their fields, the indication of mandatory fields should be visible and the input control should be accompanied by suggestions that facilitate the correction of errors. Finally, the respect of the last principle, relating to robust content, requires to provide for each framework used a relevant title, to provide equivalent alternatives, working without Java, for scripts, to correct errors that exist in the source code, to make all media compatible with assistive technologies, to define the type of each document, to make sure that hidden texts are correctly rendered by assistive technologies and to provide an appropriate title for each form button.

 

Keywords: Web accessibility, e-government websites, Moroccan websites, Moroccan e-government, persons with disability, Web accessibility evaluation, AccessiWeb method, Web accessibility evaluation methodologies, Web accessibility evaluation tools

 

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Journal Article

E‑Availability and E‑Accessibility of Financial Documents: A Cross‑State Examination of U.S. County Websites  pp73-86

David Baker, Roger Chin

© Jun 2016 Volume 14 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 134

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Abstract

Abstract: This article examines the e‑availability and e‑accessibility of financial documents through county websites in the United States (U.S.). E‑availability and e‑accessibility of financial documents supports a stakeholder‑centric approach for eval uating performance and fiscal conditions of county governments, while also promoting democratic values of transparency and accountability. Previous research addresses e‑availability and e‑accessibility for cities, only one analysis reviews popular reports in both cities and counties, and only one study exists that exclusively focuses on the 100 most populous U.S. counties. Our review extends earlier research by examining 237 U.S. counties, up to five in each of the 48 states with county governments. Addit ionally, this research makes a limited comparison with an earlier study to indicate changes in the e‑availability and e‑accessibility of financial documents over a four‑year period. Using systematic sampling and content analysis, this study contributes t o fuller understanding of the significance of financial documents as a feature of e‑government, while reviewing more counties and highlighting variations among counties of differing population sizes. This research also conducted Chi‑square tests to examin e the relationship of the variables, and the value of Cramér's V was calculated to measure the strength of the relationship between the variables. In addition to finding variations in the e‑availability and e‑accessibility of financial documents among cou nties of different population sizes, this analysis also demonstrates dramatic e‑availability improvements for two of the three selected financial documents while noting a modest decrease in the overall e‑accessibility of financial documents on county webs ites. After reporting and analyzing the findings, research limitations are disclosed, and recommendations are offered to advance the state‑of‑practice and for further studies. This form of benchmarking may assist other local governments in the U.S. with i mproving their websites, while internationally this analysis supports developing countries with refining their e‑government strategies by improving online information disclosure.

 

Keywords: Keywords: E-government, e-availability, e-accessibility, financial documents, state-of-practice, transparency, accountability

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 3 Issue 3 / Nov 2005  pp99‑156

Editor: Frank Bannister

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Keywords: electronic journal, papers, articles, eGovernment, electronic government, eGovernment methods, eGovernment studies, e-Government, Accessibility guidelines, Administration, Administrative workflows, Benchmarking, Citizen interaction, Country case study, Diffusion, Digital divide, e-Government, e-Procurement, Institutions, Internet access, Inter-organizational systems, Legal constraints, Measuring e-Government, Municipalities, Mutual aid, Non-conforming case, Policy, Public process modeling, Public sector, Slovenia, Tools, Web style guide, Web testing and evaluation and assistive technology

 

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