The Link between the Conceptualization of eGovernment and its Perceived Impacts: an Exploratory Empirical Study in Kenya pp161-174
This paper examines how eGovernment is conceptualized and the possible relationship with the expected impacts of eGovernment in a developing world context. The aim is to shed some light on why eGovernment initiatives often fail in developing world contexts. This research was based on an exhaustive survey among government agencies and consultants in Kenya. The dimension of eGovernment impacts was initially operationalized in terms of connectivity, openness, efficiency and effectiveness. Government conceptualizations could be classified under tool view, proxy view, ensemble view, computational view and nominal view. Interestingly, the empirical data yielded very different impact factors than originally envisaged, which were enhanced interactions and accessibility, enhanced cooperation and awareness, a better connected public administration and enhanced citizen opportunities. Canonical function analysis found a supply‑side focus which linked connected government to the conceptualization of eGovernment as an Evolving Artifact. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting the fact that the implementation of western information technologies in developing countries will be shaped by how their impacts are perceived. Thus both purveyors of the technologies and researchers can be made aware that, because of the very different expectations and contexts, these technologies may be conceptualized differently than in developed countries. In addition, the paper demonstrates a practical research approach to assist in uncovering these conceptualizations more explicitly.
IT Enactment of new Public Management: the Case Study of Health Information Systems in Kenya pp311-326
In the last twenty years most African Governments have embarked on health sector reforms sponsored by international partners. Conceived under New Public Management, the majority of these reforms leverage information technology to decentralise hierarchical structures into more information efficient organizations. The paper illustrates the case study of health management information systems in Kenya in order to better understand how the enactment of information technology has influenced the organisational outcome of New Public Management reforms within the health sector in Kenya. The case study provides a longitudinal account of how the adoption and usage of information technology within two health management information systems of Kenya Ministry of Health has affected the implementation of NPM reforms. Data collection and analysis have been framed within an institutionalist perspective viewing different agents acting under the pressure of competing logics (New Public Management and Old Public Administration) at three main levels of action: the macro or policy level (e.g., formal policies), the meso or organisational level (e.g., professional norms and management), and the user or agency level (e.g., IS users' routines). The case study has shown that NPM institutions were not supported by coherent actions unifying all actors involved in the restructuration of health information systems in Kenya so that IT enactment was not consistent across the health information system giving way to structural changes that were not aligned with what was envisaged in the reforms. Findings point to the rhetoric behind certain reform discourses by main actors involved, particularly, at the macro‑policy level. The paper calls for a stronger source of political legitimacy to support discourses around public sector reforms so that through the right competences and systems of values at the meso level information technology can be used as a catalyst for a more consistent implementation of the reforms. New discourses around the potential of IT should be more aligned with certain institutions underpinning the practices of policy makers at the macro level inducing Government echelons to legitimize IT at the macro‑policy level.
Keywords: information technology, health information systems, e-Government, new public management, institution theory, Africa, developing countries
Exploring Issues Underlying Citizen Adoption of eGovernment Initiatives in Developing Countries: The Case of Tanzania pp175-187
Adoption plays an important role in the success of eGovernment initiatives. Low adoption, particularly by citizens, indicates inadequate utilization and rejection of the initiatives by the intended users. This may lead into failure of eGovernment initiatives. This is particularly important in the context of developing countries such as Tanzania where eGovernment is a newly imported innovation. It is therefore imperative to understand and proactively consider issues underlying citizen adoption of eGovernment initiatives in that context. This study aimed at identifying issues underlying adoption of eGovernment initiatives in Tanzania, a typical developing country. The results are important for designing, deploying, and evaluating of the initiatives in the country. In this paper, we present research results concerning issues influencing adoption of eGovernment initiatives by citizens in Tanzania. Using the case study approach as our strategy, we investigated the adoption of three government organisations. We found that the adoption of eGovernment initiatives in Tanzania is determined by (1) perceived organisational preparedness (2) citizen preparedness (3) service intrinsic issues, (4) access limitations, and (5) organisational context. We perceive that it is possible to achieve higher degree of citizen adoption of eGovernment initiatives in Tanzania. However, the government need appropriate strategies to overcome challenges posed by the issues identified in this study.
Volume 7 Issue 4, ECEG 2009 / Dec 2009 pp295‑432
Keywords: Africa, back-office automation, Brazil, citizensâ€™ participation, developing countries, DOI and emerging economy access, DynaVote, e-government data interoperability, e-Justice, electronic voting, eVoting requirements, Fez e-government, form generation, GIF, goal orientation, governance, health information systems, implementation, information technology, institution theory, integration strategy, intellectual capital, interoperability, Interoperability tool, inter-organizational collaboration, joined-up government, new public management, ontology, perceived risk, practically, public value, records computerization, records management, supply chain management (SCM), TAM, technology acceptance model, trust, web services, WSML/WSMO, XML schema