The Electronic Journal of e-Government publishes perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government

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Journal Article

e‑Government and Technology Acceptance: The Case of the Implementation of Section 508 Guidelines for Websites  pp87-98

Paul T. Jaeger, Miriam Matteson

© Jan 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 122

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Abstract

This paper examines the relevance of the Technology Acceptance Model for e‑Government websites at federal government level in the United States through an exploratory research study. Various unfunded government mandates over the past several years have required agencies to create websites, put services on the sites, and make them accessible to citizens, and the federal e‑Government now includes tens of thousands of sites. Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, for example, was passed to ensure e‑Government sites would be accessible to persons with disabilities. By studying the implementation of the requirements of Section 508 through a number of data collection techniques and in terms of the Technology Acceptance Model, this paper seeks to use this particular law as an example through which to better understand the processes by which government agencies adopt e‑Government requirements and the actions that government managers can take to improve the implementation of such adoption.

 

Keywords: e-Government, technology acceptance model, accessibility, Section 508, disability, public servants, websites

 

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Journal Article

The Accessibility of Moroccan Public Websites: Evaluation of Three e‑Government Websites  pp65-79

Ibtissam Bousarhane, Najima Daoudi

© Nov 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 125

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Abstract

Abstract: Enabling people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, contribute, create content and interact with the Web is the purpose of Web accessibility. The present research aims to evaluate the accessibility of three Moroccan e‑government websites to people with disabilities. To achieve the realization of this research, we opted for the method AccessiWeb and we analyzed, following this methodology, four to seven pages in each website. The evaluation results show the presence of several problems of accessibility in each of the three websites. Some accessibility problems, found in the three websites, are relating to level A criteria, other to level AA criteria, while the rest is relating to level AAA criteria. The presence of level A criteria that are not respected, in the three websites, makes us conclude that the three evaluated websites don’t meet the minimum level of accessibility. To reach the minimum level of accessibility, recommended by the W3C, all problems relating to level A and level AA criteria should be corrected. Various measures should be then taken to make the content of these websites perceivable, operable, understandable by users and robust. Thus, to make the content perceivable by users, the necessary measures to be taken can be summarized as follows : provide text equivalents for non‑textual items, increase the contrast ratio, make time‑based media clearly identifiable, provide summaries and titles for tables, make all links explicit, indicate changes of reading direction in the source code, organize the content by the use of titles, use CSS, associate form fields with relevant labels, offer accessible versions to documents for download and make it possible for users to control flashing contents. To make the content presented within the three websites operable, it is necessary to : make the control of time‑based media and no time‑based media possible by the keyboard, give pertinent titles for links and web pages, make explicit links that open in a new window, add links that help to bypass the blocks of content and the groups of links, provide information about the documents for download, ensure that navigation does not contain keyboard traps and that the sitemap page shows the general architecture of the website. Concerning the third principle, which consists on making the content understandable by users, context changes should be initiated by explicit buttons, language changes should be indicated in the source code, the labels associated with form fields should be appended with their fields, the indication of mandatory fields should be visible and the input control should be accompanied by suggestions that facilitate the correction of errors. Finally, the respect of the last principle, relating to robust content, requires to provide for each framework used a relevant title, to provide equivalent alternatives, working without Java, for scripts, to correct errors that exist in the source code, to make all media compatible with assistive technologies, to define the type of each document, to make sure that hidden texts are correctly rendered by assistive technologies and to provide an appropriate title for each form button.

 

Keywords: Web accessibility, e-government websites, Moroccan websites, Moroccan e-government, persons with disability, Web accessibility evaluation, AccessiWeb method, Web accessibility evaluation methodologies, Web accessibility evaluation tools

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 7 Issue 1 / Jan 2009  pp1‑122

Editor: Frank Bannister

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Keywords: accessibility, barriers, BRAIN, business process, business rule, capacity for getting ahead, citizen participation, community building, coping and sense making strategies, developing nations, digital divide, disability, disenfranchisement, eDemocracy, e-governance, e-Government adoption, e-government readiness, Egypt, end-user approaches, e-readiness, information and communication technology, information dissemination, internet voting, IT transfer, KedaiKom, Malaysia, municipalities, policy participation, political participation, public participation, public sector, public servants, Section 508, service delivery, social and digital inclusion, social consequences, social participation, strategic planning, Switzerland, technology acceptance model, Telecentres, turnout, websites

 

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