The Electronic Journal of e-Government publishes perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government

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Journal Article

FRAMES — A Risk Assessment Framework for e‑Services  pp21-30

Adrianos Evangelidis

© Jun 2004 Volume 2 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 74

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Abstract

e‑Government projects are expected to increase efficiency and quality of government services, whilst decreasing the costs. Unfortunately though, together with its perceived positive potential, e‑Government also entails risks. It is expected that the employment of proper risk assessment methods in the management of such projects will reduce the threats imposed by the various risks that surround these projects. This paper discusses about risk in e‑Government and provides a high‑level e‑ Government risk factor classification. Furthermore, this article proposes a novel risk assessment framework for e‑Services in the public administration.

 

Keywords: e-Government, e-Service, Risk, Risk Assessment, Frameworks

 

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Journal Article

The Effectiveness of e‑Service in Local Government: A Case Study  pp157-166

Mehdi Asgarkhani

© Feb 2006 Volume 3 Issue 4, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp157 - 240

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Abstract

e‑Technology has become a catalyst for enabling more effective government through better access to services and the democratic process. As public interest in the Internet and e‑Technology solutions continues to grow, there is an increasing expectation that they will be utilised in national and local governments for not only more efficient governance but also improving public access to information and services. This paper, based on a case study discusses some of the key aspects of electronic government and e‑Service. It examines the value and the effectiveness of e‑Services within the public sector with a focus on four specific facets of effectiveness: the view of management and ICT strategists; social, cultural and ethical implications; the implications of lack of access to ICT; and the customers'citizens' view of the usefulness and success of e‑Service initiatives.

 

Keywords: e-Technologies, e-Service, e-Government, e-Readiness, Local Government

 

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Journal Article

Building on Success: The Diffusion of e‑Government in the American States  pp71-82

Hyun Jung Yun, Cynthia Opheim

© Mar 2010 Volume 8 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 82

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine what factors encourage the diffusion of Internet technology, or e‑government, in the American states. Different dimensions of digital technology are examined by investigating the spread of both e‑service and e‑democracy. A longitudinal mixed linear model is used to test the direct effects of states' political, economic, demographic, and ideological factors on the states' efforts to adopt Internet technology over the first seven years of the new millennium. The results indicate that the adoption of Internet technology is a cumulative process; a state's preexisting digitalization is continuously built on progress in expanding the governmental digital services and outreach. States whose leaders are engaged in professional networks are more likely to adopt e‑government. Institutionally powerful governors also encourage the adoption of on‑line technology. The study concludes that the spread of Internet technology in providing services and expanding outreach fits the explanatory analysis of noncontroversial policies that are diffused by a process of emulation. Executive power, leadership, and professional networks reinforce this pattern of emulation.

 

Keywords: e-government, e-service, e-democracy, internet technology, emulation, leadership, professional networks

 

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Journal Article

Modeling and Illustrating Requirement Prioritization in Public E‑Service Development From a Value‑Based Perspective  pp3-17

Anders Avdic, Thomas Lambrinos

© Nov 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 76

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Abstract

Abstract: A major problem in e‑service development is the prioritization of the requirements of different stakeholders. The main stakeholders are governments and their citizens,all of whom have different and sometimes conflicting requirements. In this pap er, the prioritization problem is addressed by combining a value‑based approach with an illustration technique. This paper examines the following research question: How can multiple stakeholder requirements be illustrated from a value‑based perspective in order to be prioritizable? We used an e‑service development case taken from a Swedish municipality to elaborate on our approach. Our contributions are: 1) a model of the relevant domains for requirement prioritization for government, citizens, technolog y, finances and laws and regulations; and 2) a requirement fulfillment analysis tool (RFA) that consists of a requirement‑goal‑value matrix (RGV), and a calculation and illustration module (CIM). The model reduces cognitive load, helps developers t o focus on value fulfillment in e‑service development and supports them in the formulation of requirements. It also offers an input to public policy makers, should they aim to target values in the design of e‑services.

 

Keywords: Keywords: public e-services, public e-service development, requirement prioritization, requirement domains, values, goals, illustration, requirement fulfilment

 

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Journal Article

Exploring User Participation Practice in Public E‑Service Development – Why, How and in Whose Interest?  pp72-86

Jesper Holgersson, Ulf Melin, Ida Lindgren, Karin Axelsson

© May 2018 Volume 16 Issue 1, Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe, pp1 - 86

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Abstract

User participation is seen as an important enabler for successful public e‑service development. However, at the same time development of public e‑services is still often characterised by an internal government perspective with little consideration for external users’ perspectives. This paper challenges the overly positive attitude that is surrounding user participation in e‑government research. The paper aims to illustrate and problematize various aspects that influence why, how, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e‑service development. First, via a literature review, we identify a set of dimensions for critically exploring how, why, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e‑service development projects. Second, we use these dimensions in order to characterise and analyse three empirical public e‑service development cases in order to test the utility, usefulness, and feasibility of the identified dimensions. Our findings highlight the importance of questioning and elaborating on the motives behind user participation (the why) in public e‑service development. We also identify two basic forms of how user participation is addressed in public e‑service development projects: 1) veneered participation, and 2) ad‑hoc participation. Furthermore, we argue that any decisions made regarding user participation in public e‑service development should be based on conscious and informed choices concerning why user participation is needed and what it may bring for different stakeholders and their interests.

 

Keywords: E-government, User Participation, Public e-service development

 

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Journal Article

Mypage and Borger.dk — A Case Study of Two Government Service Web Portals  pp165-176

Karin Furuli, Sigrun Kongsrud

© Dec 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp95 - 224

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Abstract

This case study investigates the development of national portals offering online public services to citizens. Norway and Denmark are leading the way in developing online public services for citizens. In this study the development of the citizen portals Borger.dk in Denmark and Mypage in Norway will be examined. At present, documented research on national citizen portals is limited. Comparing the similarities and differences of citizen portals is an important part of e‑ government development. We have used a framework for comparing the portals. The research questions to be answered in this case study are; Why are citizen portals created? How does one deal with matters of security? How is portal development organized? This study is also intended to bring to light factors that have led to the differences in the development of Borger.dk and Mypage. The study is based on published and unpublished reports from the two countries in question, together with interviews with key persons. Of additional interest, in conducting this study, is the opportunity to gain greater insight into the development of online services provided by the public sector. This case study also raises further questions relating to e‑government to be used in future research.

 

Keywords: e-government, e-services, framework for comparing citizen portals, citizen portal, online public services, Borgerdk, Mypage

 

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Journal Article

Towards a Framework for eGovernment Development in Nigeria  pp147-160

Darren Mundy, Bandi Musa

© Dec 2010 Volume 8 Issue 2, ECEG Conference Issue, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp83 - 235

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Abstract

Globally eGovernment is associated with providing opportunities to increase the connection, availability and modes of interactivity between governance at multiple levels and the citizen. It is also associated with transforming current governmental services in ways to increase efficiencies, improve processes and automate tasks previously undertaken by governmental employees. Growing demands at national government level (often subsidised by public money) and amongst citizen groups across the world lead to a greater focus on the provision of eGovernment services. Often governmental demands for improvements to service clash with citizen requirements. Governments which want to remain relevant to their citizens must take an active role in the implementation of eGovernment. Citizens have witnessed the advances in personalisation of service, accessibility and greater use of technology in the private sector that has created an expansion of innovative ICT solutions and they are now demanding that their governments do the same. This creates an environment where the provision of eGovernment services must be approached with seriousness and with the consideration of the requirements of all stakeholder groups. The aim of this paper is to detail research undertaken to examine the path towards implementation of mature eGovernment services in the country of Nigeria. The research has included a comprehensive benchmarking activity in relation to the content analysis of state government websites in Nigeria and comparison to equivalent provision of council websites in the UK. Following this an eGovernment services requirements survey targeted at citizens was conducted to determine from a citizen perspective the present need for and evaluation of eGovernment services across Nigeria and the UK. In terms of findings, the content analysis demonstrated significant shortcomings with existing state government websites in Nigeria with only 30% of websites analysed providing basic mechanisms for citizens to interact with government services. The analysis of citizen requirements found that amongst those user groups targeted there was a high level of expectation in relation to the provision of eGovernment services and also found that the Nigerian citizens surveyed were more engaged with the benefits that eGovernment could bring to their nation.

 

Keywords: eGovernment framework, eGovernment analysis, citizen requirements, Nigerian eGovernment, e-Services, eGovernment development

 

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Journal Article

Examining the Potential for Channel Shift in the UK Through Multiple Lenses  pp203-213

Darren Mundy, Qasim Umer, Alastair Foster

© Dec 2011 Volume 9 Issue 2, ECEG, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp93 - 222

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Abstract

As we globally enter a period of shifting economic fortunes and austerity measures, public service bodies continue to look to make provision more effective and efficient. In this context, such organisations look at service provision, making judgements on the value, type, and location of such provision. Inevitably questions arise as to whether particular aspects of provision can operate differently or be served through different channels at lower cost (saved either through cost of service or efficiency sa vings from doing things better). Questions arise about whether savings are possible, and what opportunities are offered through revision of service. Citizens are also becoming more demanding over service provision, recognising government wastage and dema nding service reform that best makes use of the public purse. The aim of this paper is to detail research findings from a project designed to discover the scope for channel shift (principally migrating users from mediated to self‑help solutions) within local government services. The research was carried out on behalf of a group consisting of regional and local governmental public bodies including nine councils and the local area police force. The research consisted of four defined stages: identification from within the public sector bodies of scope for shifting provision; collection of case studies related to successful switches of provision; sampling of customer groups in relation to perspectives on changes to provision; and the creation of a framework to support a business case for strategic decision making regarding channel shift. In terms of project findings, within the initial stage of the project there was no shortage of ideas related to the potential for change to provision linked to a channel sh ift. The issue was explored through Customer Service Managers with all identifying services with clear scope for change from the automation of different elements of environmental services, through a more comprehensive linking together of benefits services , to simple customer data collection. However, one of the underlying issues is the lack of accessible management data that can easily be aggregated together to support a business case for provision reform. This initial data provided a starting point for t he discovery of case studies linked to channel shift and service migration. Thirteen case studies were highlighted from the research linked to the areas identified by Customer Service Managers where reform may make a difference. This case study material p rovided a range of information about key benefits and issues with service reform in the identified areas. Following case study identification, customer perceptions on service reform were canvassed (n=197 customers at six locations) through the use of a detailed questionnaire. The results suggest that: there are concerns regarding access to e‑service provision (brought about through either lack of technology or knowledge); that there is a demand for system reform (focused on doing things the right way for the right cost); finally, that at present the most valuable local government service offered on the web is access to local information with this sometimes being difficult to find. In the final stage of the project a business case template was design ed. The business case was to better enable strategic decision making regarding channel shift. The business case is designed to enable the evaluation of requests for service channel growth with critical examination of potential success factors for the shif t of government services. Research around successful case study data also identified cases wherein success had not been achieved. Development and implementation of a business case template should enable teams to develop a better understanding of the poten tial for success or failure and indicate clearly measures needed to best support channel shift occurring.

 

Keywords: eGovernment, channel shift, transformational government, citizen requirements, e-services

 

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