The Electronic Journal of e-Government publishes perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government

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Journal Article

Evolving Structure in the Implementation of Healthcare Information Systems: An Actor‑Network Analysis  pp30-40

Hannu Larsson

© Sep 2011 Volume 9 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 92

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Abstract

Public sector ICT use is now moving towards integration of services and processes across departments, for instance in the healthcare sector. This is a challenging issue as it involves distributed decision making, often across both public and private organizations, which implies a multitude of issues. Enterprise Architectures (EA) aim at providing a common framework that includes data, resources and processes, through which all aspects of the enterprise can be directed towards a common goal in an efficient manner. It as been argued that architectures should be perceived as evolving (rather then as carefully planned roadmaps), although more research on how EA evolves is needed. This paper addresses the general question of, how does an EA evolve during implementation? A case study is used to illustrate how an EA evolves throughout the process of implementation. The case is the implementation of a national patient record system in the decentralized Swedish healthcare system. The project is part of a larger effort to implement an EA in the healthcare sector aimed at further integrating the whole sector. Data is collected by means of observations, interviews and document analysis. Using an Actor‑Network Theory perspective, this paper presents four episodes during which an EA evolves through interactions. In this way the paper contributes with a deepened understanding of how EA evolves by arguing that EA programs should be seen as something that needs to be planned with regard to that it will, and should, evolve in order to respond to needs discovered in the process. The contribution is a deepened understanding of how sub‑projects co‑evolve with a national EA project, thus mutually affecting each other. This should not be perceived as something unequivocally negative as this might also be strategic, and leads to evolution of other parts of the EA to suit each other.

 

Keywords: actor-network theory, eGovernment, eHealth, enterprise architecture, evolving structure, implementation

 

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Journal Article

Systematic Literature Review on Enterprise Architecture in the Public Sector  pp130-154

Dinh Duong Dang, Samuli Pekkola

© Mar 2017 Volume 15 Issue 2, Editor: Carl Erik Moe, pp57 - 154

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Abstract

Enterprise architecture (EA) is an approach to improve the alignment between the organization’s business and their information technologies. It attempts to capture the status of the organizations’ business architecture, information resources, information systems, and technologies so that the gaps and weaknesses in their processes and infrastructures can be identified, and development directions planned. For this reason, EA has become a popular approach also in the public sector to increase their efficiency and ICT utilization. Yet researchers have largely ignored this context, and it seems that quite little is known about how EA is developed, implemented, or adapted in different countries and in the public sector. We thus conducted a systematic literature review to identify the major research topics and methods in studies focusing on public sector EA. We analyzed 71 identified articles from the past 15 years. Our analysis shows that the development viewpoint, case studies in developed countries, and local settings seem to form mainstream EA research in the public sector. Taken together, it seems that public sector EA is scattered, and there is no strong, single research stream. Instead the researchers conduct local case studies. This means the knowledge on EA development, implementation or adaptation, their challenges and best practices does not accumulate. There is consequently a need for more research in general, and targeted research in some specific segments.

 

Keywords: Enterprise Architecture, Public Sector, Systematic Literature Review, Government Enterprise Architecture.

 

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Journal Article

Key Issues in Enterprise Architecture Adoption in the Public Sector  pp46-58

Ville Seppänen, Katja Penttinen, Mirja Pulkkinen

© May 2018 Volume 16 Issue 1, Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe, pp1 - 86

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Abstract

This paper examines the challenges of enterprise architecture (EA) adoption in public sector organisations. So far, demonstrating the benefits of EA has appeared difficult in this context, and the results in transforming public sector remain modest: Both the penetration and the maturity of EA appear rather low. In the academia, however, the adoption of EA has gained less interest than the EA development and methodologies. Hence, there is a need for research on what are the challenges of EA adoption, and how to overcome them. This paper presents the results of an expert survey on the challenges of EA adoption in the Finnish public sector. The analysis of quantitative data, supported with a qualitative data, reveals three interrelated factors: Resistance towards EA, Relevant EA goals, and the EA practices in use. Managing the identified key issues classified in these three broad concepts would be the prerequisite for institutionalising EA and making it a legitimate practice. The findings extend the current knowledge of the public sector EA with practicable ideas how to increase the level of penetration and maturity.

 

Keywords: enterprise architecture (EA), adoption, organisational change, resistance towards EA, relevant EA goals, EA practices in use, survey research

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 9 Issue 1 / Sep 2011  pp1‑92

Editor: Frank Bannister

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Editorial

Ships that Pass in the Night?

 

For some years now I have been involved in the PhD symposium at the European Group for Public Administration’s (EGPA’s) annual conference.  The majority of the PhD students attending these symposia are doing their research in public administration rather than e‑government, but sometimes ICT raises its head in unexpected situations.

 

This happened a few weeks ago at this year’s conference in Bucharest when a student was presenting some of the ongoing results from the COCOPS project.  Don’t worry about the acronym (www.eur.nl/cocops/ if you want to know more), COCOPS is an EU funded project which, inter alia is trying to evaluate the impact of various public sector reforms.  In the presentation in question, the student discussed and analysed various attempts to evaluate the impact of New Public Management (NPM) on public administration and citizens over the period from about the early 1990s to the present.

 

This coincides, give or take a year or two, with the period of the Internet and the Web in government.  So in the discussion afterwards I could not resist asking the obvious question: how are you (or COCOPS) going to differentiate the effect of NPM (or any other reform over this period) from the impact of technology?   This led to a lively discussion at the end of which there was no clear answer – possibly because distilling out such impacts is next to impossible.

 

The question of evaluating the impact of e‑government is one for another day.  My observation here is that the student, and one assumes that COCOPS team (and a very distinguished bunch they are), did not seem to have given this matter much, if any, thought.  Given that Eric Brynjolfsson is on record as claiming that almost all of the productivity gains in the US economy over the past 20 plus years are attributable to information technology, it seems a bit well, quixotic, to ignore the impact of the same technology in the public sector.  Quixotic maybe, but surprising no.  The world of public administration, or at least the academic end of it, is still, seemingly, largely oblivious of IT.  In fact the previous week at the eGov conference in Delft when I remarked at an IFIP meeting that the Oxford Handbook of Public Management had only two chapters which considered IT at all (and one of those was on IT in government by Helen Margretts) a leading American academic (whose identity I will protect though he has tenure) snorted on contemptuously that that was because public administration academics were still 30 years behind in their thinking.

 

A bit over the top maybe, but there a germ of truth in this accusation as there is in the sometimes heard counter accusation that too many people working in e‑government do not know enough about mainstream public administration, its concepts, theories and ideas.  A small number academics bridge this divide and many of them are to be found at EGPA each year, but it is a gap that really needs to be addressed by both sides.  Both public administration and e‑government worlds have much to learn from each other and if they could, there world would be the richer for it. 

 

Frank Bannister

September 2011

 

Keywords: CIO, local government, Mexico, IT organization, eService, electronic service, public service delivery, eGovernment application, interoperability, integrated service, Bangladesh, actor-network theory, eGovernment, eHealth, enterprise architecture, evolving structure, implementation, participatory budgeting, eDemocracy, Symfony, Quimby, open-source, eDem 1.0, software reuse, electronic PB, TQM, eGovernment, local government, organisational change, certification,

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 15 Issue 2 / Mar 2017  pp57‑154

Editor: Carl Erik Moe

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Editorial

Chief Editor

carl erik moe Dr Carl Erik Moe  is a Professor of Information Systems at the University of Agder, Norway. After serving as Head of Department (HOD) for a number of years, he is back to research and teaching. As HOD he took a leading role developing graduate programs in both Information Systems and Health Informatics, and PhD program in Information Systems as well as promoting and generating research collaboration with local government and industry.

Carl Erik has served as Program Chair of IFIP EGOV 2012. He is an active reviewer for several academic journals. He was one of the founding members of the Scandinavian Workshop on e‑Government, of which he is still very much involved and he has served as leader of the Norwegian Council for Information Science.

Carl Erik’s current research interests include e‑Government covering issues such as Procurement of IS and Policies and Strategies for Digital Government including Open Government and ICT4D, and it includes e‑Health covering issues such as IS in Social Work, Telecare and Information Systems in Integrated Care.

Carl Erik served as Associate Editor on EJEG for several years before taking over as Editor. He welcomes both empirical and conceptual work and case studies with practical implications, and he encourages work on emerging topics and open and smart government. His ambition is to keep up the good academic quality of the journal at the same time as encouraging work in progress and establishing a case section in the journal.

 

Keywords: online public services, digital divide, logistic regression analysis, Enterprise Architecture, Public Sector, Systematic Literature Review, Government Enterprise Architecture, Technology Acceptance, e-procurement, survey, private firms, Belgium, Social Sensors, Open Governance, Crowdsourcing, e-participation, Trust, Information Quality, Organizational performance, E-government, Qualitative research, Kuwait, Arab World

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 16 Issue 1 / May 2018  pp1‑86

Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe

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Keywords: ICT4D, Capability Approach, Design-reality gap, ICT4D evaluation, ICT4D champion, Jigawa ICT, economic empowerment, information infrastructure, e-government, implementation, public-private partnership (PPP), least developed countries (LDCs), sub-Saharan Africa, Rwanda, Social media, Social media-based collaboration, Government challenges, Government requirements, Citizen engagement, Two-way communication, Citizens-government relationship, enterprise architecture (EA), adoption, organisational change, resistance towards EA, relevant EA goals, EA practices in use, survey research, degree of digitalization, satisfied citizens, local e-government, municipality, Sweden, E-government, User Participation, Public e-service development

 

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