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Journal Article

International Technical Standards for e‑Government  pp75-80

John Borras

© Oct 2004 Volume 2 Issue 2, ECEG 2004, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp75 - 146

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Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the work currently being undertaken at an international level by the OASIS e‑Government Technical Committee on developing ICT standards for interoperability to support the work of putting government services on‑line. The work of the committee is on‑going and this paper provides a snapshot of current progress as at the date of this paper and assumes a certain level of awareness on the part of the reader of the new set of Internet technologies.

 

Keywords: ICT standards, e-Government Services, Interoperability, International co-operation

 

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Journal Article

A Comparative Analysis of Product Classification in Public vs. Private e‑Procurement  pp201-212

Joerg Leukel, Gregory Maniatopoulos

© Feb 2006 Volume 3 Issue 4, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp157 - 240

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Abstract

Product classification is an important tool for automating e‑Procurement processes in the private sector, whereas public e‑Procurement does not emphasize this function. This paper reports on the methodology and results of a comparative analysis of product classification in public vs. private e‑Procurement. We define criteria for assessing the current state of respective standards, such as CPV, eCl@ss, and UNSPSC. The in‑depth analysis of two representative standards reveals fundamental differences and shortcomings, which can partly be attributed to different objectives and priorities of public and private sector organizations.

 

Keywords: CPV, e-Procurement, Interoperability, Standardization

 

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Journal Article

A Model for Document Management in e‑Government Systems Based on Hierarchical Process Folders  pp191-204

Raphael Kunis, Gudula Rünger, Michael Schwind

© Dec 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp95 - 224

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Abstract

Document management plays a decisive role in modern e‑government applications. As today's authorities have to face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and quality while decreasing the duration of their government processes, a flexible, adaptable document management system is needed for large e‑government applications. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for a document management model that helps to face this challenge. The model is based on two new document management concepts that extend common document management facilities: hierarchical process folders and security levels. A hierarchical process folder mainly consists of files that belong to a government process and includes all documents processed during process execution. The folder grows during execution and contains all versions of changed, existing, and added documents. The process folders can be used in a single authority software system as well as in distributed e‑government software systems. More precisely, this means that the model of hierarchical process folders can be deployed to exchange process folders in whole or in part between authorities to support the execution of distributed hierarchical government processes. We give an example how the application to single authorities and distributed systems is possible by describing the implementation within our distributed e‑ government software system. The application of security levels to documents allows the encryption of documents based on security relevant properties, e. g. user privileges for intra authority security and network classification for inter authority communication. The benefits of our model are at first a centralised data management for all documents of a single or a hierarchical government process. Secondly, a traceable history of all data within government processes, which is very important for the archival storage of the electronic government processes, is provided. Thirdly, the security levels allow a secure intra authority document accessing system and inter authority document communication system.

 

Keywords: electronic government applications, document management systems, hierarchical government processes, interoperability, document processing, e-government security

 

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Journal Article

XML Schema Design and Management for e‑Government Data Interoperability  pp371-380

Thomas Lee, C.T. Hon

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECEG 2009, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp295 - 432

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Abstract

One‑stop public services and single window systems are primary goals of many e‑government initiatives. How to facilitate the technical and data interoperability among the systems in different government agencies is a key of meeting these goals. While many software standards, such as Web Services and ebXML, have been formulated to address the interoperability between different technical platforms, the data interoperability problem remains to be a big challenge. The data interoperability concerns how different parties agree on what information to exchange, and the definition and representation of such information. To address this problem, the Hong Kong government has released the XML Schema Design and Management Guide as well as the Registry of Data Standards under its e‑Government Interoperability Framework initiative. This paper introduces how the data modelling methodology provided by the Guide can be used to develop data interfaces and standards for e‑government systems. We also discuss how the Macao government has formulated their data interoperability policy and has applied the Guide in their situation.

 

Keywords: e-government data interoperability, XML schema

 

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Journal Article

A Pragmatic Approach to Interoperability Practical Implementation Support (IPIS) for e‑Government Interoperability  pp393-404

Apitep Saekow, Choompol Boonmee

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECEG 2009, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp295 - 432

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Abstract

In recent years, e‑Government interoperability has been a fascinating research and development area in order to facilitate the seamless exchange of information across government sectors. Many researchers have focused on the designingadopting of Government Interoperability Frameworks (GIFs) and of Enterprise Architectures (EAs) for implementing the interoperability. However, merely adopting the GIFs and EAs would be insufficient since there have been several strong obstacles and barriers on the road to its achievement in the field of e‑Government, such as human, semantic and technical issues. In fact, the successful implementation in government interoperability needs more practical and implementable approach. This paper firstly describes those obstacles and barriers with the solution and guideline to overcome them. We propose towards more practical approach covering three dimensions of interoperability: Business, Semantic, and Technical. The approach, is called 'Interoperability Practical Implementation Support (IPIS)', considers the adoptiondevelopment of integrated three components: a set of tools, an interoperability repository, and a knowledge based system. The set of tools were designed to supporting the three interoperability perspectives; the tool for modelingspecifying business processes of an organization based on UMM, the semantic tool for standardizingharmonizing data based on UNCEFACT CCTS, XML Naming and Design Rules, and Recommend 34, and the technical standards usage support tool. For reusability, the IPIS was designed by considering the adaptation of five interoperability repositories: business process, data standardized set, XML Schema standard, web services and technical standards. The knowledge based system integrates the knowledge resources that consist of a collection of best practice cases, ontological concepts in semantic technologies, and the related frameworks. The paper presents the overall methodology and the architecture of IPIS with the three components. By adopting the IPIS, the design, development and implementation of interoperable systems in e‑Government can be practically addressed.

 

Keywords: interoperability, e-government interoperability, interoperability tool, GIF, e-government

 

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Journal Article

Public Sector eService Development in Bangladesh: Status, Prospects and Challenges  pp15-29

M. Shakhawat Hossain Bhuiyan

© Sep 2011 Volume 9 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 92

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Abstract

Rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) creates extensive opportunities for efficient and cost effective public service delivery. Even though most developed countries have had established electronic services for several years, the vast majority of developing countries have started only recently. In 2007, Bangladesh has also started to prioritise eService development in the national agenda e.g. dissemination of service information through websites, availability of official forms online, utility bill payment through mobile phone SMS and so on. There is as yet a lack of studies capturing the overall picture of such initiatives and progress in this country. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine various public eService development initiatives in Bangladesh, assess eService maturity level, and thereby assist the government to expedite implementation of those services. The study is based on both survey and interview approaches. A survey of 44 public officials, working on eGovernment implementation in different ministries and central public authorities, was conducted using a structured questionnaire. In addition, nine top‑level officials involved in ICT related government policy intervention were interviewed. A literature review covers theoretical tools on measuring and implementing eGovernment applications such as stage models to categorise eService maturity level. The survey and interview results aligned with a well‑known stage model are used to provided an overall picture of public eService initiatives in Bangladesh. The study has identified existing major eServices and assessed the overall maturity level of the services. The study also contributes by identifying prospects for public eService delivery in Bangladesh, including growing use of mobile phones and public private partnerships (PPP); while inadequate legal regulations, scarcity of power supply, insufficient initiatives by top‑level managements, service integrity and interoperability etc. are identified as challenges for the growth of public eService development and sustainability. Finally, the study also puts forward some recommendations to deal with major challenges.

 

Keywords: eService, electronic service, public service delivery, eGovernment application, interoperability, integrated service, Bangladesh

 

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Journal Article

Towards a Semantic Interoperability in an e‑Government Application  pp209-226

Fathia Bettahar, Claude Moulin, Jean-Paul Barthes

© Jan 2009 Volume 7 Issue 3, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp209 - 294

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Abstract

Research issues have emerged from the rapid introduction of new technologies in government services in order to deliver efficient and cost effective services, information and knowledge through information and communication technologies. However, the complexity of government services and the diversity of actors involved in the processes make the access to the right information difficult and pose several problems. Some problems are linked to the way of presenting and accessing information. Other problems are linked to interoperability among applications and processes of eGovernment services. The objective of the European TerreGov project is to find a solution to such problems. The project focuses on the semantic requirements of governments at local, intermediate and regional levels, needed to build flexible and interoperable tools to support the change towards eGovernment services. We propose, within this project, an ontology to present knowledge and to achieve the required level of semantic interoperability. We use the ontology to describe the domain knowledge of the organization and to index the resources from which civil servants may receive information. The key point of the system is a unique and multimodal ontology used simultaneously for describing domain knowledge, for adding semantics to agency services, for indexing various documents in knowledge bases used by civil servants and finally for supporting the interaction between the users and the system. We present in this paper the challenges of using ontology in eGovernment environments, such as the lack of expressivity of the formalism chosen for interoperability in the project and the risk of inconsistency when the ontology changes. We propose our solution to such challenges and we demonstrate the use of the ontology by the module in charge of managing complex tasks in the system.

 

Keywords: ontology, e-government, ontology formalism, semantic interoperability

 

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Journal Article

A Multi‑Level Framework for ICT‑Enabled Governance: Assessing the Non‑Technical Dimensions of 'Government Openness'  pp152-165

Misuraca Gianluca, Alfano, Giuseppe, Viscusi, Gianluigi

© Dec 2011 Volume 9 Issue 2, ECEG, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp93 - 222

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Abstract

This paper proposes an interpretative framework which aims to provide a systemic perspective and an instrument to elicit the links between Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and governance, outlining the various challenges that this poses . In particular, it discusses the multiple dimensions of governance and identifies the public value drivers underpinning the conceptual and measurement framework proposed. In doing so the paper focuses on the 'openness' of governance mechanisms through it s interoperability dimension. It considers state‑of‑the‑art contributions at both academic and practitioner level and it also looks at how the proposed framework can be applied to the evaluation of two case studies at cross‑border, and national‑city level in Europe. Interoperability in fact is predominantly seen as an instrument for enabling cross‑border collaboration between public administrations within and between different Member States. Many initiatives and projects have been promoted and carried out during the last decade resulting in a growing number of potentially reusable best practices and benchmarks. Nevertheless, the complexity and volume of resulting project outcomes represent a challenge for effective exploitation of the results in other ini tiatives and intervention contexts. Moreover, despite the recognition of interoperability as a multi‑faceted concept (i.e. technological, organizational, and semantic), it seems to be mainly the technological aspects of interoperability that emerge from the available project results. The paper concludes outlining indications for future research and in particular on interoperability as a key driver for ICT‑enabled governance. Interoperability is found to play a strategic role in the delivery of e‑Governm ent services to local and national communities within the EU. Moreover, its significance is expected to increase over the next few years, especially in terms of how it supports emerging city governance models and acts as the backbone of communications at a pan‑European, national and local level.

 

Keywords: interoperability, eGovernance, information systems, Europe, policy, value

 

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