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Journal Article

e‑Administration, e‑Government, e‑Governance and the Learning City: A typology of Citizenship management using ICTs  pp213-218

Hélène Michel

© Feb 2006 Volume 3 Issue 4, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp157 - 240

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Citizenship implies a certain model of relationship between citizens and their government. This type of relationship can be conceived in several ways. Citizenship can be presented in the form of an object to be governed in various ways. Using a two year research‑action study in the town of Vandoeuvre (France), we elaborated a typology of citizenship management using Information and Computer Technologies composed of four modes: E‑administration, E‑ government, E‑governance and "The Learning City". In the "e‑administration" mode, the citizen is considered as a « consumer of rights » claiming personalized and efficient public services. It corresponds to a government « for the people » with a strategy of citizen satisfaction improvement. The second mode, that we call "e‑government" reflects a vision of a relatively passive citizen‑agent, who responds to his duties. Based on the need of quantifying and comparing solutions, this government of the people relies on regular consultations in order to improve the policy's acceptance. In this perspective, electronic voting is the most appropriate tool, because it facilitates the communication of citizens' opinions to government, while conserving a consultative characteristic. In the "e‑governance" mode, the citizen is considered an active agent of local democracy. The citizen is now considered as a source of ideas and initiatives that provides a mutual enrichment. The e‑governance model can launch a reflection on the local government's knowledge management capacity. This could then result in a fourth type of the citizen relationship management, which would not be a government of the people, for the people or by the people, but according to the people. We called this mode "the Learning City". The logic underlying this approach would be: "learn how to learn", defining a range of possible actions, choosing the decision corresponding to the criteria considered to be essential to the success. The citizens would at the same time be actors and determinants of the rules. The role of the local officials and the corresponding ICT tools remain to be imagined.


Keywords: e-Administration, e-Government, e-Governance, learning organization, Citizen Relationship Management, local government, ICT


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