The Electronic Journal of e-Government publishes perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government

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Journal Article

Scenarios of e‑Government in 2010 and implications for strategy design  pp1-10

Georg Aichholzer

© Jun 2004 Volume 2 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 74

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Abstract

This contribution focuses on e‑Government as a comprehensive change programme and develops alternative scenarios with a view towards 2010. Empirical evidence of substantial risks to a successful implementation and operation of e‑Government calls for a forward‑looking approach and possible ways of correcting a wide‑spread neglect of long‑term innovation risks. The paper explores the scenario method as an established instrument for improving strategic decisions in a context of change, uncertainty and complex environments. Its application in a Europe‑wide research project leads to three macro‑scenarios with divergent implications for e‑Government prospects. The conclusions suggest particular requirements for developing more robust e‑Government strategies and encourage a wider use of scenario processes.

 

Keywords: e-Government, risk, future, scenario method, strategy, Europe

 

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Journal Article

The Accessibility of Moroccan Public Websites: Evaluation of Three e‑Government Websites  pp65-79

Ibtissam Bousarhane, Najima Daoudi

© Nov 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 125

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Abstract

Abstract: Enabling people with disabilities to perceive, understand, navigate, contribute, create content and interact with the Web is the purpose of Web accessibility. The present research aims to evaluate the accessibility of three Moroccan e‑government websites to people with disabilities. To achieve the realization of this research, we opted for the method AccessiWeb and we analyzed, following this methodology, four to seven pages in each website. The evaluation results show the presence of several problems of accessibility in each of the three websites. Some accessibility problems, found in the three websites, are relating to level A criteria, other to level AA criteria, while the rest is relating to level AAA criteria. The presence of level A criteria that are not respected, in the three websites, makes us conclude that the three evaluated websites don’t meet the minimum level of accessibility. To reach the minimum level of accessibility, recommended by the W3C, all problems relating to level A and level AA criteria should be corrected. Various measures should be then taken to make the content of these websites perceivable, operable, understandable by users and robust. Thus, to make the content perceivable by users, the necessary measures to be taken can be summarized as follows : provide text equivalents for non‑textual items, increase the contrast ratio, make time‑based media clearly identifiable, provide summaries and titles for tables, make all links explicit, indicate changes of reading direction in the source code, organize the content by the use of titles, use CSS, associate form fields with relevant labels, offer accessible versions to documents for download and make it possible for users to control flashing contents. To make the content presented within the three websites operable, it is necessary to : make the control of time‑based media and no time‑based media possible by the keyboard, give pertinent titles for links and web pages, make explicit links that open in a new window, add links that help to bypass the blocks of content and the groups of links, provide information about the documents for download, ensure that navigation does not contain keyboard traps and that the sitemap page shows the general architecture of the website. Concerning the third principle, which consists on making the content understandable by users, context changes should be initiated by explicit buttons, language changes should be indicated in the source code, the labels associated with form fields should be appended with their fields, the indication of mandatory fields should be visible and the input control should be accompanied by suggestions that facilitate the correction of errors. Finally, the respect of the last principle, relating to robust content, requires to provide for each framework used a relevant title, to provide equivalent alternatives, working without Java, for scripts, to correct errors that exist in the source code, to make all media compatible with assistive technologies, to define the type of each document, to make sure that hidden texts are correctly rendered by assistive technologies and to provide an appropriate title for each form button.

 

Keywords: Web accessibility, e-government websites, Moroccan websites, Moroccan e-government, persons with disability, Web accessibility evaluation, AccessiWeb method, Web accessibility evaluation methodologies, Web accessibility evaluation tools

 

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Journal Article

A Review of e‑Government Research as a Mature Discipline: Trends, Themes, Philosophies, Methodologies, and Methods  pp18-35

Muhammad Yusuf, Carl Adams, Kate Dingley

© Jun 2016 Volume 14 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 134

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Abstract

Abstract: This paper aims to identify themes, trends, research philosophies, methodologies and methods used in E‑Government studies. This research uses a novel structure literature review method to capture the evolving research focus in the E‑Government l iterature. It examines all abstracts from the European Conference on E‑Government (ECEG) papers from 2007 to 2012 and International Conference on E‑Government (ICEG) papers from 2007 to 2010. This paper also compares previous research covering themes and models of E‑Government research. The research findings are: 1) case study and potential case study is dominant methods, 2) there are various research philosophy, methodology and methods on e‑government field, and 3) e‑government is evolving over ti me and is maturing as a discipline. An analysis also shows lack of works covering development of theory in e‑government domain. This paper provides further contribution by using a novel approach for conducting a structured literature review, based on eval uating abstracts and key words, and in a corresponding method to method to validate classification of themes that emerge using focus group discussion sessions.

 

Keywords: Keywords: e-government, themes, trends, philosophy, methodology, method, literature review, ICEG, ECEG

 

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Journal Article

The Application of Methodologies in e‑Government  pp115-126

Lee Anthony Eddowes

© Oct 2004 Volume 2 Issue 2, ECEG 2004, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp75 - 146

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Abstract

This paper contributes to critical discussion on the contribution of methodologies in implementing e‑Government programmes. The paper takes into account institutional, technological and organisational factors within the public sector and how the concept and practicality of methodologies are being applied. The paper explores the experiences of e‑Government specific methodologies, and in drawing on the work of Wastell, Newman and Kawalek (2002) to illustrate perceptions of e‑Government by implementing agencies.

 

Keywords: e-Government, methodology, IT enabled change, pathfinder

 

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Journal Article

Information System and Information Infrastructure Deployment: the Challenge of the Italian e‑Justice Approach  pp43-52

Francesco Contini, Antonio Cordella

© Aug 2007 Volume 5 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 95

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Abstract

Information systems development methodologies are still mainly concerned with the research of better ways to provide technical solutions for given organisational problems. The paper challenges the appropriateness of this scope of development methodologies when system development deals with the deployment of information infrastructures. The attempt of the Italian Ministry of Justice to deploy e‑justice, a new information infrastructure for the judiciary, is taken as an explanatory case. The research data suggests that development methodologies supporting information system development that focus on the solution of technical problems result that are appropriate to match design and adoption processes in simple organisational contexts, such as in the case of the automation of bureaucratic procedures supporting judicial activities. When the involved context and adoption process is more complex and challenging, as in the e‑justice case, it seems necessary to change the aim and scope of the chosen system development methodologies. The conceptual shift from information systems to information infrastructures allows one to grasp this growing complexity and to propose development methodologies, such as cultivation, that eases the deployment of such initiatives.

 

Keywords: information systems development methodologies, information infrastructures, e-justice, cultivation

 

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Journal Article

Competent Electronic Participation Channels in Electronic Democracy  pp195-208

Dimitrios Zissis, Dimitrios Lekkas, Anastasia-Evangelia Papadopoulou

© Apr 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, ECEG 2007, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp123 - 208

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Abstract

Electronic Democracy is appearing in political agendas across countries and boarders. This paper refers to electronic participation channels implemented to digitalize decision processes in an electronic democracy. Electronic participation includes the sub processes of information acquisition and formation of an opinion. The function of efficient electronic participation in electronic democracy is crucial and indispensable. Electronic Democracy provides citizens with the opportunity to engage efficiently in democratic processes. Current technology can be perceived as an evolution of traditional communication linkages between political representatives and citizens. These can provide an "extensive library" of information and a "meeting point" for political debate. A surplus of existing technologies provides the means to enhance the unidirectional and bidirectional communication paths between citizens and involved political entities. Such a technological deployment though must meet a number of requirements ranging from usability issues to electronic security. An in depth analysis and review of social and technical requirements of such channels is provided in this paper. Solutions are presented which meet previously identified needs and through their comparison the fulfilment of the requirements will be met. This papers objective is to identify the custom design for efficient and competent electronic participation channels in electronic democracy. This goal will be achieved through a comparison of the current technological tools used in e‑participation, called e‑methods. For each one of these e‑methods a SWOT analysis will be provided, listing the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats, that this particular tool may have. Eventually a comparison is made after the establishment of criteria regarding many aspects such as: security, privacy, accessibility, user's or developer's viewpoints. Proficiently deployed technological infrastructures which enhance the bidirectional communication pathways will lead to engaged and better informed citizens, and evidently to a stronger democracy. Findings of this paper should be considered by parties interested in deploying electronic democracy infrastructures and fellow researchers in the field.

 

Keywords: e-democracy, e-voting, e-participation, e-methods comparison

 

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Journal Article

Usability of Government Websites in Uganda  pp1-12

Edgar Napoleon Asiimwe, Nena Lim

© Mar 2010 Volume 8 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 82

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Abstract

Government websites offer great benefits to citizens and governments. Such benefits, however, cannot be realized if websites are unusable. This study investigates usability of government websites in Uganda. Using the feature investigation method, the study evaluated four Ugandan government websites according to three perspectives. Results show that websites are partially usable in the design layout and navigation perspectives but are rather weak in stating legal policies. Evaluation results provide the Ugandan government with a clear picture of what needs to be improved according to international website design standards. Moreover, the parsimonious evaluation framework proposed in the research is useful for any country that wants to do a quick and easy evaluation of their government websites.

 

Keywords: e-government, web usability, Uganda, feature inspection method

 

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Journal Article

Measuring for Knowledge: A Data‑Driven Research Approach for eGovernment  pp226-235

Pieter Verdegem, Jeroen Stragier, Gino Verleye

© Dec 2010 Volume 8 Issue 2, ECEG Conference Issue, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp83 - 235

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Abstract

As ICT provide a lot of possibilities, high expectancies exist towards the electronic public service provision. All governments are increasingly establishing their e‑strategies. However, eGovernment still faces many challenges as it continues to develop. The current status of electronic services delivery opens up a lot of questions, both for practitioners and researchers. Therefore, further progress of eGovernment needs a profound knowledge base. eGovernment policy has focused several years on bringing online public services and on benchmarking their availability and sophistication. Simultaneously, eGovernment measurement and monitoring activities are often based on the so‑called supply‑side benchmarking. Although this is important knowledge, it is under criticism because it lacks a user‑centric viewpoint of eGovernment development. This article presents and discusses a bottom‑up and data‑driven approach about how research can help to manage (user‑centric) eGovernment strategies. Based on statistical testing (techniques of structural equation modeling, SEM) of large‑scale sample data from the Belgian government, the authors have investigated which relations do exist between contextual variables and the availability and/or satisfaction of electronic public services. By doing this, this manuscript presents an illustration of a data‑driven approach in eGovernment monitoring and it explains how this can support and enrich the management and evaluation of eGovernment policy.

 

Keywords: eGovernment, methodology, management, benchmarking, evaluation, satisfaction, structural equation modeling, SEM

 

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