The Electronic Journal of e-Government publishes perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government

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Journal Article

Stages of Growth in e‑Government: An Architectural Approach  pp193-200

Marijn Janssen, Anne Fleur van Veenstra

© Feb 2006 Volume 3 Issue 4, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp157 - 240

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Abstract

Governmental agencies from all over the world are in various stages of development to migrate their traditional systems architectures to more horizontally and vertically integrated architectures. In this paper a stages of growth model for the development of information architectures for local governmental agencies is presented. By analyzing discontinuities in the architectures coordinating back and front office applications five stages are derived. The five‑stage model consists of 1) no integration, 2) one‑to‑one messaging, 3) warehouse, 4) broker and 5) orchestrated broker architecture. Public decision‑makers can use these stages as a guidance and direction in architecture development, to reduce the complexity of the progression of e‑government initiatives, to communicate changes to the rest of the organization and to provide milestones to evaluate and control cost of architecture development.

 

Keywords: Information architecture, local government, stage models, coordination, information broker, web service orchestration

 

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Journal Article

Assessing e‑Readiness in the Arab Countries: Perceptions Towards ICT Environment in Public Organisations in the State of Kuwait  pp77-87

Abdel Nasser H. Zaied, Faraj A. Khairalla, Wael Al-Rashed

© Aug 2007 Volume 5 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 95

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Abstract

In the information age, the gap between the developed and developing countries increased due to the ease of access to new technologies and the usage of information and communications technology (ICT). The first step in promoting e‑Government is conducting the e‑Readiness assessment E‑Readiness is defined as the degree to which a community is prepared to participate in the information age (networked world). It is measured by assessing a community's relative advancement in the areas that are most critical for ICT adoption and the most important applications of ICT. E‑Readiness assessment is meant to guide development efforts by providing benchmarks for comparison and gauging progress. It can also be a vital tool for judging the impact of ICT, to replace wild claims and anecdotal evidence about the role of ICT in development with concrete data for comparison. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the e‑Readiness assessment models and to investigate the perceptions towards the IT environment in some public organisations in the State of Kuwait. Three main variables (human skills, infrastructure and connectivity) have been used. These variables were derived using the terms suggested by Harvard CID and APEC models. The results show that less than half (46.57%) of the participants agreed that their organisations have adequate and appropriate connectivity, infrastructure and IT human skills to implement the electronic government systems.

 

Keywords: e-Readiness, Assessment models, e-Government, e- Services

 

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Journal Article

An e‑Government Stages of Growth Model Based on Research Within the Irish Revenue Offices  pp415-424

Finn de Brí

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECEG 2009, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp295 - 432

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Abstract

This paper describes a stages of growth model for e‑Government. The proposed model is comprised of seven stages, which are divided into three phases. The model is based on research into and analysis of Information Systems and Information Communications Technology (ICT) solutions in the Irish Revenue Offices for more than a 50‑year period. It is argued that this model provides a useful template for understanding the growth of ICT in government organisations.

 

Keywords: stages of growth, e-government, learning organisation, ICT, IT evolutionary models, IT maturity

 

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Journal Article

A Model of Success Factors for Implementing Local E‑government in Uganda  pp31-46

Robinah Nabafu, Gilbert Maiga

© Oct 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 94

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Abstract

Local e‑government enables citizens at all levels to interact with government easily and access services through electronic means. It enables electronic transactions between government departments and the private sector to take place easily and cheaply. Despite these benefits, its implementation in economically and technologically transitioning countries remains problematic. This is largely due to the gap between the existing e‑government implementation models and the local context for these countries. This study attempts to address this problem by describing a model for local e‑government implementation in a transitioning country, Uganda. A field study was used to gather requirements for the model. The results are used to extend an existing model in order to describe a suitable one for Uganda. Basing on the results collected from the field, the research recommends that the extended model for local e‑government implementation should address the dimensions of financial Resource mobilization, ICT infrastructure, training, sensitization, trust and social political factors. The model was validated in a questionnaire based field study

 

Keywords: Electronic government, Local government, success factors, Transitional country, developing country, Traditional local government, e-government implementation models.

 

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Journal Article

A Critical Analysis of E‑government Evaluation Models at National and Local Municipal Levels  pp28-42

Dalal Ibrahem Zahran, Hana Abdullah Al-Nuaim, Malcolm John Rutter, David Benyon

© Nov 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 76

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Abstract

Abstract: The importance of e‑government models lies in their offering a basis to measure and guide e‑government. There is still no agreement on how to assess a government online. Most of the e‑government models are not based on research, nor are they validated. In most countries, e‑government has not reached higher stages of growth. Several scholars have shown a confusing picture of e‑government. What is lacking is an in‑depth analysis of e‑government models. Responding to the need for such an analysis, this study identifies the strengths and weaknesses of major national and local e‑government evaluation models. The common limitations of most models are focusing on the government and not the citizen, missing qualitative measures, constructing the e‑equivalent of a bureaucratic administration, and defining general criteria without sufficient validations. In addition, this study has found that the metrics defined for national e‑government are not suitable for municipalities, and most of the existing studies have focused on national e‑governments even though local ones are closer to citizens. There is a need for developing a good theoretical model for both national and local municipal e‑government.

 

Keywords: Keywords: E-government, Municipality, E-government Evaluation Models, Web Evaluation, Usability, Citizen-centric Websites

 

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Journal Article

Models and Metrics for Evaluating Local Electronic Government Systems and Services  pp95-104

Toni Carbo, James G. Williams

© Oct 2004 Volume 2 Issue 2, ECEG 2004, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp75 - 146

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Abstract

We do not yet have good measures for Digital Government or agreement on what we should be measuring. We also lack a common understanding of models of the processes used to plan, fund, develop, implement, operate, and evaluate systems in different contexts. This paper reviews the processes of government and examines examples of models and metrics appropriate for different contexts for systems to be successful and describes a proposed research project to examine local digital government services in Pennsylvania and develop replicable models and measures for evaluation of systems and services.

 

Keywords: e-Government, digital government, metrics, measures, local, models

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 5 Issue 1 / Jun 2007  pp1‑95

Editor: Frank Bannister

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Editorial

The level of research activity in e‑government research continues to escalate. Earlier this year I attended part of the East European e‑Government Conference in Prague. June saw the European Conference on e‑Government in The Hague and (at the time of writing) will be followed by e‑Gov in Regensburg in early September and the European Group of Public Administration Conference later in the same month in Madrid: good for the research field, if not for meagre and stressed out academic travel budgets.

While a great deal of research is being produced, and maybe because so much research is being produced, the quality is mixed. Consequently it can take time to find papers of sufficient quality to publish in the journal. I am therefore pleased to have nine good articles, with a truly international mix, for this issue.

In their article Bof and Previtali examine the state of e‑government in the Italian health services. The authors have done some serious groundwork in their research and the picture they come up with is of a sector struggling to get to grips with this technology – particularly in the area of procurement. Their analysis of the reasons underlying these problems is blunt and their prescriptions will be of interest to many organisations.

Carr and Gannon O’Leary examine the UK’s Framework for Multi‑Agency Environment (FAME) research programme. The lessons from this research include the perhaps not surprising one that complex projects take time to implement, but they make the innovative suggestion that one approach to assisting such processes is closer engagement between agencies and universities with expertise in social and information technology sciences.

I first heard Castelnovo and Simonetta’s paper at the ECEG conference in Genoa last year and I recall being quite taken by it at the time. It appears here in a more fully developed form. The article explores the concept of public value, a topic that in my view does not receive anything like enough attention from the research community. Based on their conceptualisation of public service value, they propose a novel approach to the evaluation of e‑government projects. While they do this in the context of small local government projects, many of the ideas here are applicable in a wider arena

Canada is usually held up as one of the paragons of e‑government. In the various international benchmarks, Canada is consistently in the top two or three. In their article, Kumar et al look underneath the hood at what is actually going on in Canadian e‑government, where it seems use of government websites for information is much more important to most citizens than the ability to carry out on‑line transactions. Starting from this, and using an extensive study of the literature, the authors develop and propose a conceptual model of e‑government adoption, somewhat analogous to some of the more developed technology adoption models.

e‑Readiness is a useful concept, but how does one measure it? In their article, Zaied et al address this question in the context of countries in the Arab world. Drawing on an extensive list of scholarly and professional sources, they develop a measurement instrument and then use this to explore the state of readiness in Kuwait using three constructs, human skills, infrastructure and connectivity. Their approach may be of interest to other researchers in developing countries as a way of assessing the state of readiness of their own countries for e‑government.

One of the persistent issues in e‑government is the diversity and duplication of data, just one aspect of the widespread silo phenomenon in public administration. Chiang and Hseih’s article describes the findings of an extended research project into information integration in Taipei County in South Korea. Anybody who has any experience of merging and/or integrating large data set will appreciate both the business and technical challenges that this presents. However once done, the benefits, as the authors show, are considerable ranging from cost reduction to lower administrative workloads and ease of standardisation.

Another aspect of Italian public services, the justice system, is examined by Contini and Cordella, who use it as a case study for an exploration of systems design and development methodologies. Public sector systems in general tend to be complicated, but justice systems are particularly challenging when one moves from basic automation to applying technology to higher level processes such as the creation of new shared working practices. The authors argue that the methodologies used for system development in the past are no longer appropriate for these more complex problems and that what they describe as information infrastructure deployment projects need to be considered as socio‑technical rather than just technical projects.

On more or less the same theme of the complexity of public business processes, Freiheit and Zengl, describe the use of a modelling technique called Event‑driven Process Chains. They argue that traditional business modelling techniques are designed to help the software designer rather than the user (here the citizen) and argue that this and other methods which have been developed in the commercial sector can be usefully applied in the public sector. Having described this concept, they evaluate it using the European Judicial Network as one of a number of case studies. For those familiar with other modelling techniques, this approach has elements which will be familiar, and elements which are new. Even those who are not au fait with modelling techniques should find the ideas in this article interesting.

Finally, in this issue we are introducing a new feature. The journal receives a steady stream of what might be called ‘country’ articles, i.e. articles which outline the current state of e‑government in a particular country or region. One of the problems we sometimes have with these submissions is that, while they are interesting, they are not very academic and consequently, when we apply the normal standards of academic research rigour, they are rejected. However, I often find these papers informative and I think that other readers might too. So we have started a special section with an inaugural paper on e‑government in Nepal by Parajuli. I found this an engaging and different story from what, for most westerners, is still a slightly mysterious and exotic land. I hope that you will enjoy it as much as I did.

 

Keywords: assessment models, business processes, Canada, Cultivation, customer orientation, databases, developing country, digital government, e-Government leaders, e-Justice, e-Procurement, e-Readiness, event-driven process chains, FAME, HCOs, ICT, information infrastructures, information integration, information systems development methodologies, inter-communal cooperation, Nepal, organisational change, organizational requirements, public procurement, public services, public value, small local government organizations, socio-technical practice, user-interface, web site analysis, web site contents

 

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