IT Enactment of new Public Management: the Case Study of Health Information Systems in Kenya pp311-326
In the last twenty years most African Governments have embarked on health sector reforms sponsored by international partners. Conceived under New Public Management, the majority of these reforms leverage information technology to decentralise hierarchical structures into more information efficient organizations. The paper illustrates the case study of health management information systems in Kenya in order to better understand how the enactment of information technology has influenced the organisational outcome of New Public Management reforms within the health sector in Kenya. The case study provides a longitudinal account of how the adoption and usage of information technology within two health management information systems of Kenya Ministry of Health has affected the implementation of NPM reforms. Data collection and analysis have been framed within an institutionalist perspective viewing different agents acting under the pressure of competing logics (New Public Management and Old Public Administration) at three main levels of action: the macro or policy level (e.g., formal policies), the meso or organisational level (e.g., professional norms and management), and the user or agency level (e.g., IS users' routines). The case study has shown that NPM institutions were not supported by coherent actions unifying all actors involved in the restructuration of health information systems in Kenya so that IT enactment was not consistent across the health information system giving way to structural changes that were not aligned with what was envisaged in the reforms. Findings point to the rhetoric behind certain reform discourses by main actors involved, particularly, at the macro‑policy level. The paper calls for a stronger source of political legitimacy to support discourses around public sector reforms so that through the right competences and systems of values at the meso level information technology can be used as a catalyst for a more consistent implementation of the reforms. New discourses around the potential of IT should be more aligned with certain institutions underpinning the practices of policy makers at the macro level inducing Government echelons to legitimize IT at the macro‑policy level.
Keywords: information technology, health information systems, e-Government, new public management, institution theory, Africa, developing countries
Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden pp198-209
Abstract: Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centers (CCs) in Swedish municipalities are compared and discussed from an organizational perspective. The research method was semi‑structured qualitative interviews with different personnel c ategories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified. The implementation strategies varied between the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the menta l constructs and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CCs and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and different phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as a source for planning and decision‑making was not fully utilized in the municipal organizations, although some statistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal and informal learning strategies and flexible co‑operation among the employees in the CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good, co‑operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating of skills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to the organization of the wor k. The organization in response groups required more specialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups, which required more general competence. Two challenges for the case administrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process‑oriented organization of their work and to co‑operate more with their colleagues both in the back office and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrative work in a better way than before, but some administrators miss ed the previous spontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators were afraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CCs, contributing to negative attitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in the impleme ntation process.
Keywords: Keywords: Contact Centers, New Public Management, implementation, e-government, municipalities, MOA model
Volume 7 Issue 4, ECEG 2009 / Dec 2009 pp295‑432
Keywords: Africa, back-office automation, Brazil, citizensâ€™ participation, developing countries, DOI and emerging economy access, DynaVote, e-government data interoperability, e-Justice, electronic voting, eVoting requirements, Fez e-government, form generation, GIF, goal orientation, governance, health information systems, implementation, information technology, institution theory, integration strategy, intellectual capital, interoperability, Interoperability tool, inter-organizational collaboration, joined-up government, new public management, ontology, perceived risk, practically, public value, records computerization, records management, supply chain management (SCM), TAM, technology acceptance model, trust, web services, WSML/WSMO, XML schema