The Electronic Journal of e-Government publishes perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Government

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Journal Article

Factors Affecting the Successful Implementation of ICT Projects in Government  pp175-184

David Gichoya

© Feb 2006 Volume 3 Issue 4, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp157 - 240

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Abstract

A government is a huge and complex organisation, whose operations and strategic focus could be greatly enhanced by the well focussed application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to support improvements in productivity, management effectiveness and ultimately, the quality of services offered to citizens. While the benefits of ICT in government cannot be disputed, there are several concerns about its success as well as the strategies to be adopted in implementation of systems in various countries. In this paper, the characteristic challenges that developing nations face, which make ICT implementation in government fail to succeed are identified and synthesised. The paper presents results of literature review of case studies from both developed and developing countries and preliminary studies grounded in the Kenya e‑Government reality. The key factors are identified, synthesised and categorised under common broad categories. This results in a rich picture of ICT implementation experience that helps to identify possible solutions. A descriptive framework for categorising key factors in ICT implementation in government illustrated with references to the literature is proposed. The input variables are categorised into factors for success (drivers and enablers), and factors for failure (barriers and inhibitors). The output variables are categorized into organisational and technological benefits. Finally, an action for success is proposed. This action includes suggestions for increasing the impact of factors for success while reducing the impact of factors for failure and use of available good practice.

 

Keywords: Government informatics, ICT projects implementation, e-Government, information system, ICT success and failure

 

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Journal Article

Practical Aspects of DynaVote e‑Voting Protocol  pp327-338

Orhan Cetinkaya, Mehmet Levent Koc

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 4, ECEG 2009, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp295 - 432

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Abstract

Voting is regarded as one of the most effective methods for individuals to express their opinions on a given topic. Electronic voting (e‑Voting) refers to the use of computers or computerised voting equipments to cast ballots in an election. e‑Voting performed over Internet can be universally accepted in the upcoming years due to the fact that Internet plays a key role in people's lives. The DynaVote e‑Voting protocol claims that it is practical over a network since it does not use complex algorithms and has no physical assumptions such as untappable channels, whereas fulfilling core voting requirements such as privacy, accuracy, uncoercibility and individual verifiability. Software development requires a considerable amount of time and money. Therefore, in order to utilise all resources, the prototype implementation gains more importance as it gives quick feedback about the practicality of the system. This paper presents a prototype implementation of DynaVote e‑Voting protocol over the Internet. Since DynaVote relies on Pseudo‑Voter Identity (PVID) scheme, which is an unlinkable pseudo identity mechanism, the prototype includes implementation of a PVID scheme component as well. The main outcome of this study is to prove that DynaVote protocol over Internet is practical and applicable in real life and to illustrate that PVID scheme provides unlinkability. This study also contributes some improvements in DynaVote e‑ voting protocol. Furthermore, this paper analyses how the prototype fulfils some electronic voting system requirements such as efficiency, transparency and mobility.

 

Keywords: DynaVote, e-Voting, electronic voting, implementation, practically, e-Voting requirements

 

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Journal Article

A Model of Success Factors for Implementing Local E‑government in Uganda  pp31-46

Robinah Nabafu, Gilbert Maiga

© Oct 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 94

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Abstract

Local e‑government enables citizens at all levels to interact with government easily and access services through electronic means. It enables electronic transactions between government departments and the private sector to take place easily and cheaply. Despite these benefits, its implementation in economically and technologically transitioning countries remains problematic. This is largely due to the gap between the existing e‑government implementation models and the local context for these countries. This study attempts to address this problem by describing a model for local e‑government implementation in a transitioning country, Uganda. A field study was used to gather requirements for the model. The results are used to extend an existing model in order to describe a suitable one for Uganda. Basing on the results collected from the field, the research recommends that the extended model for local e‑government implementation should address the dimensions of financial Resource mobilization, ICT infrastructure, training, sensitization, trust and social political factors. The model was validated in a questionnaire based field study

 

Keywords: Electronic government, Local government, success factors, Transitional country, developing country, Traditional local government, e-government implementation models.

 

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Journal Article

Challenging Organizational Issues When Municipal Contact Centers are Implemented in Sweden  pp198-209

Irene Bernhard, Kerstin Grundén

© Dec 2013 Volume 11 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp181 - 322

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Abstract

Abstract: Two case studies of the implementation of Contact Centers (CCs) in Swedish municipalities are compared and discussed from an organizational perspective. The research method was semi‑structured qualitative interviews with different personnel c ategories in both municipalities. Several challenging organizational issues for management and employees were identified. The implementation strategies varied between the cases and affected the pace of implementation, attitudes and motivation, the menta l constructs and understanding of the implementation. The financing of the CCs and recruitment strategies created problems, but in somewhat different ways and different phases of the process in each case. The potential of using registered information as a source for planning and decision‑making was not fully utilized in the municipal organizations, although some statistics were produced. In both cases there was a combination of formal and informal learning strategies and flexible co‑operation among the employees in the CCs which contributed to continuous learning processes and a good, co‑operative working climate. There was a need for continuous updating of skills in both cases, but with slightly different focus, related to the organization of the wor k. The organization in response groups required more specialist competence, compared with the organization without response groups, which required more general competence. Two challenges for the case administrators in the back offices were to adapt to a more process‑oriented organization of their work and to co‑operate more with their colleagues both in the back office and at the CC. They now had the possibility to plan their administrative work in a better way than before, but some administrators miss ed the previous spontaneous contacts with citizens. Initially, many case administrators were afraid of losing their jobs and work tasks to CCs, contributing to negative attitudes towards CC and hampering the learning process in taking part in the impleme ntation process.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Contact Centers, New Public Management, implementation, e-government, municipalities, MOA model

 

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Journal Article

E‑government in Rwanda: Implementation, Challenges and Reflections  pp19-31

Jean Damascene Twizeyimana, Hannu Larsson, Åke Grönlund

© May 2018 Volume 16 Issue 1, Editor: Dr Carl Erik Moe, pp1 - 86

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Abstract

E‑government is currently high on the agenda in many developing countries (DCs). While e‑government is well‑established in many developed countries it is new to least developed countries. Countries that start implementing e‑government today can benefit from easy import of modern technologies, but adaptation to local conditions and the organizational change that is required cannot be imported, but must be developed at home. By using examples of an ongoing initiative by the Government of Rwanda to digitalize all G2C and G2B into a single window platform, the current study investigated the important challenges in the implementation of e‑government in Rwanda. An interpretive case study was followed. Data was collected through interviews and participatory observations during August to December 2015. Data analysis was inductive, the analysis method was content analysis, and the coding followed open‑coding. NVivo software has been used to handle data and facilitate the analysis. The study found six overarching categories of aspects that challenge a successful implementation of e‑government in Rwanda. They include information infrastructure for e‑government, social inclusion, governance, management, trust in the new system, and languages. However, challenges to e‑government implementation should not be taken as of the same extent, neither their degree of mitigation. Rather, they influence and are influenced by various contextual factors which include political support, nature of the e‑government project, implementation strategies, human and socio‑economic development, existing information infrastructure, and operational capabilities. Having said this, we also argue that countries should learn from one another of their experiences, success stories, and mistakes. Despite a number of associated challenges, the adopted public‑private partnership (PPP) approach to e‑Government implementation in Rwanda might indeed seem as a suitable catalyst for e‑government success in the country.

 

Keywords: information infrastructure, e-government, implementation, public-private partnership (PPP), least developed countries (LDCs), sub-Saharan Africa, Rwanda.

 

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Journal Article

The Contribution of Sociotechnical Systems Thinking to the Effective Adoption of e‑Government and the Enhancement of Democracy  pp1-12

Leela Damodaran, John Nicholls, Alan Henney

© Jul 2005 Volume 3 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 58

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Abstract

This paper reports a study which reviewed the literature and explored the approaches adopted by a small sample of local government bodies engaged in implementing e‑Government. The findings suggest that the e‑Government implementation process underway in the UK does not embody the principles of widening democracy and increasing social inclusion. The empirical data reveal limited citizen engagement the design, development or implementation process. The paper discusses the potential contribution to be made by adopting a sociotechnical systems approach in which citizens engage with IT professionals and informationservice providers to identify needs, to test options and to achieve shared goals of e‑Government.

 

Keywords: Implementation of e-Government, Sociotechnical systems, vision of e-Government

 

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Journal Article

A Social Perspective on Implementation of e‑Government — a Longitudinal Study at the County Administration of Sweden  pp49-60

Kerstin Grundén

© Jan 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 122

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Abstract

A longitudinal study of implementation of e‑Government at the County Administration of Sweden was analysed and discussed from a social perspective. Two interview studies at the legal and traffic departments were compared. Interviews were made with decision makers, handling officers and administrative assistants focussing on social consequences of work situations, work processes and quality of e‑services to the clients. The MOA‑model was used as a frame of reference for the study. According to the analysis, coping and sense making strategies by the respondents increased. e‑Government made demands for new competencies for employees and clients. Internal and external digital divides are social consequences of the implementation of e‑services. Management increased their focus on efficiency aspects related to e‑Government. There is a need to integrate competence of social aspects into the development process of e‑Government. The users were aware of the importance of social aspects of IT implementation. There is a need for competence development of social consequences related to IT implementation also for development personnel and different interest groups.

 

Keywords: Implementation, e-Government, digital divide, social consequences, coping and sense making strategies

 

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Journal Article

Evolving Structure in the Implementation of Healthcare Information Systems: An Actor‑Network Analysis  pp30-40

Hannu Larsson

© Sep 2011 Volume 9 Issue 1, Editor: Frank Bannister, pp1 - 92

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Abstract

Public sector ICT use is now moving towards integration of services and processes across departments, for instance in the healthcare sector. This is a challenging issue as it involves distributed decision making, often across both public and private organizations, which implies a multitude of issues. Enterprise Architectures (EA) aim at providing a common framework that includes data, resources and processes, through which all aspects of the enterprise can be directed towards a common goal in an efficient manner. It as been argued that architectures should be perceived as evolving (rather then as carefully planned roadmaps), although more research on how EA evolves is needed. This paper addresses the general question of, how does an EA evolve during implementation? A case study is used to illustrate how an EA evolves throughout the process of implementation. The case is the implementation of a national patient record system in the decentralized Swedish healthcare system. The project is part of a larger effort to implement an EA in the healthcare sector aimed at further integrating the whole sector. Data is collected by means of observations, interviews and document analysis. Using an Actor‑Network Theory perspective, this paper presents four episodes during which an EA evolves through interactions. In this way the paper contributes with a deepened understanding of how EA evolves by arguing that EA programs should be seen as something that needs to be planned with regard to that it will, and should, evolve in order to respond to needs discovered in the process. The contribution is a deepened understanding of how sub‑projects co‑evolve with a national EA project, thus mutually affecting each other. This should not be perceived as something unequivocally negative as this might also be strategic, and leads to evolution of other parts of the EA to suit each other.

 

Keywords: actor-network theory, eGovernment, eHealth, enterprise architecture, evolving structure, implementation

 

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